Friday, December 6, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Interpersonal Communicaiton In Animal Ecology. Answer: Introduction Animal communication involves the transfer of information from an individual group of an animal to another, which affects the behavior of the receivers. Information, in this case, can be sent intentionally, for instance in a courtship display, or unintentionally, as in the case of predator to prey. Most of the aspects of animal behavior, for instance, emotional expressions are understood in different ways (Calabrese Berger, 2015, 102). Throughout their lives, animals can gather and weigh information, to make decisions based on different states. Most of the decisions in social interactions, intersexual competition, and mate choice rely on the information transfer, mostly between the senders and the receivers (Calabrese Berger, 2015, 102). The methodology used for this paper is case studies, which provide clear information needed for development of the topic under consideration in animal ecology. This paper provides a detailed report on the benefits of listening skills, and challenge s of incorporating interpersonal communication in animal ecology. Definition And Explanation Of The Three Required Skills The Interpersonal Communication Skill of Listening and the Benefits Effective communication is an innate talent, which most individuals possess, while others do not. However, communication is something which can be learned or practiced. Learning strategies are bound to help individuals especially those dealing with animals in the field of ecology to be able to master their interpersonal communication skills (Knapp et al., 2014, 78). A different technique is used while getting a message across individuals, either in the workplace or different settings. the skill of listening enables human beings to be very well versed with messages passed on to them, either between individuals, groups, and even in interacting with animals in this field. The interpersonal communication skill of listening ensures that messages are not distorted and more so, that the basic and important information is passed as desired from one party to the other. The skill of feedback and benefits There is a need to recognize the availability of different challenges, which interrupt effective communication across different individual and different settings (Knapp et al., 2014, 78). Interpersonal communication has been broken down into different elements, for easier understanding. Common elements in this aspect include; the communicator, who involve the ender and the receiver. The second element is the message, which I the actual speech used or the information which I conveyed. The other element is noise, which refers to anything that tries to distort the message feedback comprises of the message which is returned by the receiver and allowed the receiver to gauge how well his message has been received (Miller Steinberg, 2016, 76). This sill calls for the need to understand where the speaker I coming from, and more so, reflecting on their feelings. If feelings are unclear or hidden, the content of the message is usually paraphrased (Kiesler, 2016, 19). This way, there is a need to use gestures, facial expressions and occasionally nodding to show understanding. Feedback therefore, is also important to human beings, in that it ensures that the message passed is understood, and that time is saved between parties to ensure proper information dissemination in the long run. The skill of questioning and the benefits Eye contact attracts a lot of attention, which in turn leads to effective message transfer in the case of questioning. (Miller Steinberg, 2016, 76). This is considered the most fundamental ingredient of effective questioning and communication. Eye contact takes away all forms of distractions and ensures that the focus is between the sender and the receiver of the message. Now that eye contact is already created, there is a need to give attention, remain ready and more so, being present. With this skill, all background activity is screened out, and the focus is on the speech mannerism and the feeling of the two parties; the sender and the receiver of the messages (Kiesler, 2016, 19). The skill of questioning ensures that every party is on board, in regards to what is being discussed. Another benefit associated with the skill of questioning regard the fact that human beings can ask for clarifications where necessary. This will in turn, help to ensure that a sense of sureness is always obtained before interpreting messages. Key Challenge Fear is the key challenge to incorporating interpersonal communication in the field of animal ecology. Fear is the silent killer of communication effectiveness, and loving relationships. In most cases, individuals are fearful in establishing relationships with animals, in the sense of being close to them, and more so, understanding their feelings (Strate, 2004, 82). In most cases, one is not sure how animals might react, hence opt to keep a distance and not interact with them. It is important to note that in most cases, animals are friendly, and it only takes understanding to be at par with them, and understand their worries, emotions, feelings among others (Strate, 2004, 82). Effective interpersonal skills, enable individuals actually to communicate with animals and predict their next moves and feelings, or reactions. Conclusion This paper has managed to bring out the basics of interpersonal communication in the field of animal ecology (Strate, 2004, 82). In the case of the three listening and questioning skills, the elements of attentiveness, understanding and eye contact a well as regular feedback have been discussed. The benefits of each have also been brought out in the following action. The field of animal ecology and understanding calls for general and consistent feedback, as well as an emotional contact between the receiver and the sender of information (Lannamann, 2011, 182). Evidently, animals communicate among themselves, but with the embracement of interpersonal skills, it is possible for humans to understand how animals behave generally, and product their behavior in the most efficient ways. The bottom line is that the field of communication might be relatively complex, but understanding is the key to overall effectiveness in this aspect, which applies to both human beings and animals. Recommendation Interpersonal communication can be adequately implemented into the field of animal ecology particularly when individuals remain willing, and more so, where relevant bodies are active enough in enhancing the establishment of this matter (Emerson et al., 2009, 72). Collaboration or teamwork is the best aspect and favorable recommendation towards enhancing the incorporation of interpersonal communication in the field of animal ecology. This includes getting along well with others, and more so, building rapport, to ensure that by the end of the day, both the aim of the receiver and the sender are achieved (Emerson et al., 2009, 72). This recommendation aims at ensuring that correct steps are also followed when it comes to the incorporation of skills and different mechanisms in establishing relationships altogether. Interpersonal communication and how to enhance its effectiveness is considered a mystery and a challenge in most disciplines. However, with the correct knowledge and informati on in place, it is easier to achieve all desired outcomes, without any struggle in the long run (Nicholas et al., 2010, 98). Expert advice, however, still needs to be relied on when making implementations in this discipline. Bibliography DeVito, J.A., 2015.The interpersonal communication book. Pearson. Berger, C.R., and Calabrese, R.J., 2015. Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication.Human communication research,1(2), pp.99-112. Knapp, M.L., Vangelisti, A.L. and Caughlin, J.P., 2014.Interpersonal communication human relationships. Pearson Higher Ed. Miller, G.R. and Steinberg, M., 2015.Between people: A new analysis of interpersonal communication. Science Research Associates. Kiesler, D.J., 2016.Contemporary interpersonal theory and research: Personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. John Wiley Sons. Barnlund, D.C., 2016. Interpersonal communication; survey and studies. Strate, L., 2004.Media ecology. John Wiley Sons, Inc. Lannamann, J.W., 2011. Interpersonal communication research as ideological practice.Communication Theory,1(3), pp.179-203. Allee, W.C., Park, O., Emerson, A.E., Park, T. and Schmidt, K.P., 2009.Principles of animal ecology (No. Edn 1). WB Saunders Co. Ltd. O'Connell, A.F., Nichols, J.D. and Karanth, K.U. eds., 2010.Camera traps in animal ecology: methods and analyses. Springer Science Business Media.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Monday, November 25, 2019
University of Michigan-Flint Admissions Data University of Michigan-Flint Description: Founded in 1956, the University of Michigan-Flint is one of 15 four-year public universities in Michigan. Flint is located about an hour northwest of Detroit, and the city has a rich history in American civil rights as well as the automobile industry. Today the city continues to evolve and has become a rich location for the arts. The city is the home to The Flint Institute of the Arts, and a range of venues for art exhibition, theater and music. The University of Michigan-Flint campus sits in the heart of the city. Kettering University is withing walking distance. UM-F takes pride in its engaged learning approach to education. Since its founding, the university has followed a learning by doing model of education in which students engage in internships, undergraduate research projects, campus leadership positions, creative projects, and community service. Students can choose from over 100 areas of study, and academics are supported by a healthy 16 to 1 student / faculty ratio. Profess ional fields in business, education, and health are particularly popular. Campus life is active with several fraternities and sororities, over 20 club sports, and a wide range of other student clubs and organizations. The university does not have any varsity intercollegiate athletic teams, but UM-F students can by tickets to University of Michigan games at a discounted price.Ã Admissions Data (2016): University of Michigan - Flint Acceptance Rate: 65%Test Scores 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: 493Ã / 575SAT Math: 485Ã / 598SAT Writing: - / -What these SAT numbers meanMichigan public university SAT score comparisonACT Composite: 19Ã / 26ACT English: 18 / 26ACT Math: 18Ã / 25What these ACT numbers meanMichigan public university ACT score comparison Enrollment (2016): Total Enrollment: 8,044Ã (6,585 undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 39% Male / 61% Female58% Full-time Costs (2016 - 17): Tuition and Fees: $10,344 (in-state); $20,190 (out-of-state)Books: $1,000 (why so much?)Room and Board: $8,706Other Expenses: $3,910Total Cost: $23,960Ã (in-state); $33,806 (out-of-state) University of Michigan-Flint Financial Aid (2015- 16): Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 89%Percentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 63%Loans: 85%Average Amount of AidGrants: $7,786Loans: $6,428 Academic Programs: Most Popular Majors:Ã Accounting, Biology, Business Administration, Elementary Education, Health Care Administration, Nursing, Social Work Graduation and Retention Rates: First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 68%4-Year Graduation Rate: 13%6-Year Graduation Rate: 37% Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics Interested in the University of Michigan-Flint? You May Like These Universities: Michigan State UniversityCentral Michigan UniversityUniversity of Michigan-DearbornUniversity of Michigan-Ann ArborWayne State UniversitySaginaw Valley State UniversityWestern Michigan UniversityFerris State UniversityOakland University University of Michigan-Flint Mission Statement: mission statement fromÃ umflint.edu/chancellor/mission-vision The University of Michigan-Flint is a comprehensive urban university of diverse learners and scholars committed to advancing our local and global communities. In the University of Michigan tradition, we value excellence in teaching, learning, and scholarship; student centeredness; and engaged citizenship. Through personal attention and dedicated faculty and staff, our students become leaders and best in their fields, professions, and communities.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Discussion#4 - Essay Example ty as a human being that prompts Bonaparte to remark Ã¢â¬Å"and I was somehow very small and very lost and lonely like a child astray in the snow.Ã And anything that happened to me afterwards, I never felt the same about it againÃ¢â¬ (OConnor 1163). As opposed to this, in the story of Ã¢â¬Å"Another way to dieÃ¢â¬ an innocent bystander Ã¢â¬â a veterinarian Ã¢â¬â examines a soldier to check whether he is dead, when all of a sudden the almost-corpse grabs him with a death grip and topples him into a pit containing eight dead men. This cold clasp of death is the spur that makes the veterinarian think, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ll never get rid of this coldness againÃ¢â¬ . This quote is prompted by the veterinarianÃ¢â¬â¢s unwitting close brush with death, which leaves him uneasy from its clammy grip, while the changed feelings in Bonaparte arise from natural inner shame at his act of killing a man who had become a friend. The context of the two statements is therefore quite different and does not support a conclusion that both of them are similar people. Bonaparte is a soldier fighting a war, the veterinarian is a doctor who is involved only peripherally in the war. Bonaparte has taken action and killed a soldier friend, the veterinarian did not kill anyone, he was a doctor who was checking the pulse of a dead man. While Bonaparte as a soldier was involved in the business of taking lives, the veterinarian as a doctor was involved in the business of saving lives. Bonaparte killed his good friend even in a different setting Ã¢â¬â a remote boarding house. The veterinarian is also located in a zoo setting rather than directly on the battle field but he is close to the war because he soldiers move through the area each day, yet even in this war setting, he is saved by the very same lieutenant who had just buried four men and ordered the killing of four more. The dissimilarities between the men also arises out of the context within which the two stories are placed, despite the fact that both of them were
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Roisin as a Secular Western Woman in the Film by Ken Loach - Research Paper Example As the film begins, Casim is shown working as a disc jockey in a club, playing Arabic music. In this scene, the crowd primarily consisting of young British-Pakistanis is depicted dancing wildly to the music. This crowd contravenes the common precept of Islam as a largely conservative religion. It is also fairly unconventional for a Muslim to work as a deejay as Casim does. This scene clearly illustrates the extensive influence that secular western values have had on Islam, and especially on second-generation Muslims. It is evident that these young adults are not devout adherents of Islam and its traditions, like their parents. This lack of complete devotion could be attributed to their intermingling with other cultures and desire to be accepted in a rather diverse society (Ernst 5). Another scene focusing on religion in Ae Fond Kiss is that of Tahara delivering a speech in front of students during what appears to be a class debate (02:48-04:21). The debate evidently revolves around t he WestÃ¢â¬â¢s unified crusade against global terrorism, as shown on the whiteboard. Tahara presents a strong argument stating that she defies the universal definition of terrorism as provided by the West since it fails to account for the many people subjected to terror in daily circumstances. Most importantly, Tahara says that she rejects the manner in which the West simplifies Muslims. The speech draws oneÃ¢â¬â¢s attention to the stereotypes held by Westerners for Muslims. It also shows how absurd it is to generalize Muslims and link all of them to terrorism, yet they are as diverse as other religions.
Monday, November 18, 2019
In general - Essay Example In the original work, an author tends to own the writing by mentioning his name in it. The writer is responsible for the authenticity of information and is liable for consequences in case, the information is invalid. On the other hand, a plagiarized work lacks ownership. A reader can not believe that the writer had faith in the information he/she has included while plagiarizing in the paper. Originality in writing shows the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s individualistic contribution in widening and deepening the sea of knowledge, whereas an individual who plagiarizes creates whirlpools in this sea. The most fundamental difference between originality and plagiarism is that the former gives birth to knowledge whereas the latter is a literary theft. Moreover, originality is clear whereas plagiarism often gets too blurred a concept to be put into black and white (Ã¢â¬Å"Types of PlagiarismÃ¢â¬ ). For example, many times, the same old ideas have to be repeated in a new paper. If the language is suffic iently changed so as to remove the originality but the meaning is kept unchanged, would it not be a theft of idea? Different people have different answers to this question. Difference between description and analysis: Description is a straight mention of facts about a thing, matter, incident or anything.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Analysis Of Marketing Mix We took up Amul Ice Cream as a product for our study and analysis. The project basic objective was to acquire a deeper understanding of the product and apply the concepts related to marketing mix, 4Ps of marketing and the consumer behavior as learnt in the course. The project was studied in three parts: Marketing mix of Amul Ice cream Study of the consumer behavior with the help of a structured questionnaire Marketing mix of two main competitors; Kwality Walls and Mother Dairy, suggestions and foresight about Amul Ice Creams In the first part, we studied the marketing mix of Amul ice cream which was further divided into four parts: Product, Price, Place and Promotion. MAIN CONTENTS Note: all corrections/additions/reasons in lieu of corrections are done below the remarks itself. SESSION 1 Marketing Mix of Amul Ice cream Amul Ice Cream was launched on 10th March, 1996 in Gujarat. It was launched on the platform of Real Milk. Real Ice Cream given that it is a milk company and the wholesomeness of its products gives it a competitive advantage. In 1997, Amul ice creams entered Mumbai followed by Chennai in 1998 and Kolkata and Delhi in 2002. Nationally it was rolled out across the country in 1999. It has combated competition from the established players like Walls, Mother Dairy and achieved the No 1 position in the country. This position was achieved in 2001 and it has continued to remain at the top. Today the market share of Amul ice cream is 38% as against the 9% market share of HLL, thus making it 4 times larger than its closest competitor. Product Amul has added a vast variety of flavours to its ever growing range. Currently it offers a selection of 220 products. Amul has always brought newness in its products and the same applies for ice creams. The broad heads under which Amul markets its ice creams are as follows: Royal treat range (rajbhog, cappuccino, chocochips, butterscotch, tutti frutti) Nut-o-mania range (kaju draksh, kesar pista, roasted almond, kesar carnival, badshahi badam kulfi, shista pista kulfi) Utsav range (anjir, roasted almond) Simply delicious range (vanilla, strawberry, pineapple, rose, chocolate) Natures treat (alphonso mango, fresh litchi, anjir, fresh strawberry, black current) Sundae range (mango, black current, chocolate, strawberry) Millennium ice cream (cheese with almonds, dates with honey) Milk bars (chocobar, mango dolly, raspberry dolly, shahi badam kulfi, shahi pista kulfi, mawa malai kulfi cream, green pista kulfi) Cool candies (orange, mango), Cassatta, Tricone cones (butterscotch, chocolate), megabite-almond cone), Frostik 3 layer chocolate bar, Fundoo range exclusively for kids, Slimscoop fat free frozen dessert (vanilla, banana, mango, pineapple), Health Isabcool In January 2007, Amul introduced SUGAR FREE ProLife Probiotic Wellness Ice Cream, which was a first in India. This range of SUGAR FREE, LOW FAT Diabetic Delight ProLife Probiotic Wellness Ice Cream is created for the health conscious. Price Amul has managed to stay ahead of its competitors by providing quality products at competitive prices, maximizing customer value. Amul followed the penetration pricing strategy and entered the market with prices much less than the leader in the market kwality Walls. This helped Amul in achieving great success at the start. Amul also captured a lot of the lower end untapped market due to its pricing strategy and gradually acquired a market share of 12-15% in the first few years. The pricing has been a major advantage of the brand. Following Amul, other players lowered their prices consequent to which Amul now follows a competitive pricing as its major strategy. Range of price minimum and maximum? Amul frostiks start from Rs 10 and go upto Rs. 20. The prolife pro-biotic icecream is priced at Rs. 15 for 125 ml. the super saver take away packs start from as low as Rs.110 for 2 litre whereas catering the higher end, exotica range starts from Rs. 120 per litre brick and extends upto Rs. 160 for different flavours. Place Ice cream, being a perishable item, it is very important to have a good distribution channel. Amuls head office is at Anand. The entire market is divided into 5 zones. The zonal offices are located at Ahmadabad, Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai. Moreover there are 49 Depots located across the country and Amul caters to 13 Export markets also. Amul follows four marketing channels to distribute its ice creams. Level Zero also called direct marketing channel consists of a manufacturer selling directly to the final customers how? Amul has entered into direct retailing through Amul Utterly Delicious parlours created in major cities Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Baroda, Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Surat. These parlours surpass the regular softy and ice-cream scoop offering joints in terms of popularity and look set to give the more established ice cream brands in the cities a run for their money. In these parlours, icecream is stored and transported in a frozen condition (- 28o centigrade or below). They also keep frozen pizzas and frozen paneer. Level One contains one selling intermediary such as retailer to the final customers Level Two has two intermediaries typically distributor and the retailer Level Three comprises the distributor, retailer with the jobber in between Promotion Amul doesnt follow an aggressive marketing strategy for its ice creams. In the beginning, TV commercials for products such as amul tricone, real milk ice cream, frostik and premium ice cream were seen frequently. However these commercials cannot be spotted now. Instead the company prefers a more direct approach to sales promotion strategy. Offers such as super saver packs, one plus one and the likes are often given to lure the consumers into buying. Apart from these, Amul Company as a whole with its advertising partner FCB-ULKA puts up its hoardings which are famous for their satirical take on current happenings, for its complete basket of products including ice cream. The main reason for Amul retaining its dominant position in the market despite a conservative marketing strategy is because all the market players in this product category follow the same kind of strategy, i.e. minimal exposure to electronic media and high on sales promotion technique. In such a scenario Amul has been successful in creating a niche for itself. Amuls entry into ice creams is regarded as successful due to the large market share it was able to capture within a short period of time. The differential pricing, quality of products and of course, the brand name made this possible. SESSION 2 Consumer Buying Behavior We studied the marketing mix of Amul ice creams. Now well study and analyze the behavior in terms of consumers decision making process and factors affecting their buying behavior. Consumer behavior is how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods, services and ideas to satisfy their needs and wants. Consumer passes through five stages in buying a product: Need Identification Information Search Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase of Product After Sales Service Consumers dont always pass through all the above stages while making a purchase. For many of products (mostly perishable), the kind of involvement in the buying process is low. Consumers tend to do a lot of brand switching for the sake of variety and novelty. While buying a regular brand of ice cream, one goes directly from the need for ice-cream to the purchase decision skipping information search and evaluation. Even if they are present, the time given to each of these is negligible as compared to other stages. This is very important part of consumer buying behavior which in turn affects the factors affecting the consumer behavior. If one is loyal to one brand he will repeatedly purchase that brand and flavor. However if one doesnt find that product, he is very likely to switch to other available brands without much effort and may start liking it. Factors affecting the consumer behavior: Various types of factors which affect the consumer behavior and lead them towards a particular ice-cream brand are as follows: Product specifications, variety, price range, promotion strategies, and availability of product (which forms an integral part in case of variety seeking products) Reference groups (family, friends , media etc) and their effect on choices Knowledge of other brands existing in the market and their positioning in the minds of the consumers Demographics age, gender, income group Situational occasions where a consumer buys a product Involvement in buying the product in terms of frequency of purchase Studying the consumer behavior: In the survey conducted, (sample size=60) well first do a general analysis studying the market and Amul ice-creams position in it. In second part of the analysis, well see how different age groups may behave differently in consuming ice cream. Methodology: Samples for the study consisted of people from the age group of 18-40. Samples were taken randomly where a structured questionnaire was mailed to the people and their responses recorded. The questionnaire had the following dimensions: Demographics of the respondents such as age, income group, occupation, gender Knowledge/awareness about the various brands available in the market Frequency of purchase of ice cream, place of purchase, price preferences, reference groups, Favorite brands vis-Ã -vis Amul in terms of ratings on the features of the product. Sample size: 60 respondents from the target population were approached to fill in the questionnaire. Result and discussion: The decision in buying ice cream is influenced by many factors such as taste, availability, pricing, packaging, variety of the product, occasions and mood and so on. Results of the data analysis will be studied in two parts: An overall analysis of all the factors. A comparative analysis of the age groups to analyze the difference in their behavior due to different age. Overall analysis: Demographics of the respondents: Data was collected with respect to four demographics of the sample; age, gender, income groups and occupation. Based on the analysis, it was observed that 68% of respondents were in the age group 18-24 and 32% in the age group 25-40. One third of the respondents were females. More than 50% of the samples were students owing to which the income range of less than 50000 Rs. bears the highest percentage in the income distribution. The following pie charts show the age, and income group distribution of the sample: Consumer behavior with respect to frequency of purchase and the occasions/moods leading the buying towards buying ice creams: The frequency of purchasing of ice creams is high. 7% and 35% of the respondents buy ice cream on a daily and weekly basis respectively. This implies that buying frequency for ice creams is fairly high. This influences the level of involvement in looking for the alternatives each time the buyer consumes an ice-cream. The consumer is more or less habitual own interpretation? in purchasing the ice cream due to which the 2 steps in buying behavior become redundant as already mentioned earlier. By habitual, we mean routine to be more precise. This can be seen in the following pie-chart which shows the frequency of purchase. Restating the data, 7% of the respondents are buying on a daily basis and 35% are doing so weekly. In terms of mood in buying, people generally buy ice-cream without any reason when buying very frequently. If they buy occasionally then the occasions on which buying is carried out on the occasions as given below: The samples are equally distributed over the occasions such as birthday, marriage, family outing, hanging out with friends, or part with the % of people consuming it with friends dominating the others. As far as choosing the flavor/brand of ice-cream is concerned, over 93% choose the flavor/brand themselves. It can be inferred that the influence of family and friends in choosing the ice-cream is very low and people go by their own choices while buying it. 5% of the people eat ice-cream flavors as decided by the family which may be the case when one is buying bricks of ice-cream. Rest 2% constitutes people who go by the friends choice in choosing the flavor/brand. Place of purchase and importance attached to packaging: More than 50% of the consumers buy ice cream from the corner shop of their colony. It signifies the importance of distribution channels and the kind of availability they need to have to maintain to create a position in the market. If they go out of stock they are at the risk of losing their customers to other competitors. The data infers that availability of Ice-creams are high in round the corner shop and Super markets whereas Malls may afford to go loose on all time availability. Regarding the packaging, 93% place importance on the packaging of the ice-cream which again makes it important for the brands to have a very attractive packaging in order to attract the consumers. Factors forming an important consideration for trying a new product/flavor: There are various factors which lead to trying out a new product launched in the market and make repeated purchases. The following pie diagram shows the constitution of various factors that may lead to trying out and repeated a new flavor, brand or product: It can be seen that taste forms the most important factor leading to buying of ice cream which is placed higher than the brand name also. It reemphasizes the fact that brand name of the ice-cream is not the most important. If the consumer likes the taste of other product, one may shift to the other brand. The 2nd most important factor is advertising. Ice-cream brands are generally low on their promotional strategies. However the importance of advertising with consumers is easily visible in the survey. For one fourth of the people, advertising is the force which leads them towards an ice-cream product. Most of the advertising for Ice-creams comes through billboards and hoardings and here Amul as a brand scores over others as the brand awareness of Amul is one the best. 2. Comparison of consumers favorite ice-cream and Amul ice-cream on various attributes: We asked our sample to rate their favorite ice-cream vis a vis Amul ice-cream on various attributes such as taste, packaging, price , variety and availability on a scale of 5 where 1 was the worst and 5 was the best (out of total samples 13 rated Amul as their favorite ice-cream also which is roughly 21% of the total samples). A comparative chart of the same is given below: Studying the parameters: Taste: People rate their favorite ice-cream as approx 3.7 (average of all the samples collected) whereas rate the Amul ice-cream as approx. 3.1. And as we saw that taste is the most important factor in determining the choice of consumers, how you can conclude this? Graph shows that Amul ice cream is lagging behind in this attribute to quite a large extent as compared to other factors. In the previous question, we had asked the consumers about the factors which would lead them to try out a new product/flavour/brand. The response was in favour of taste with over 50% of the respondents going for the same. We took five parameters in that question and weve taken the same in the rating scale also. So using the data from above, weve concluded that from these five factors, taste is the highest influence in making the choice for ice cream. Packaging: Favorite ice-cream stands at an average of approx 3.4 as against Amul ice cream which stands at 2.9. The company needs to work on its packaging also in order to attract the consumers. Price: Amul ice cream fairs slight better than the consumers favorite ice-cream. This is obvious as Amul is known for its lower range products. Kwality-walls among the other brands are known for slightly higher prices. Amul has been doing well on this front. Variety: Favorite ice-cream is rated at 3.4 Vis a Vis Amul rated at 2.8 on this parameter. Though Amul offers a wide range of products, but maybe people are not aware about the variety of the Amul ice-creams. Amul needs to create awareness among the consumers on this front. Availability: On the parameter of availability, people rate their favorite ice-cream as approx. 3.4 and Amul as 2.9. Amul has to ensure that it never goes out of stock due to the nature of buying behavior of the product. Awareness about other brands existing in the market: People are well aware about the brands in the market. Among the top 3 brands mentioned by the consumers, Amul and Kwality-walls feature the most among the two. For the 1st preference, Kwality-walls overtake the awareness whereas for the 2nd choice Kwality-walls and Amul stand at an equal rating. This is important from the point of view of Amul as the people who are variety seeking will switch over easily to the other brands if they are not happy with Amul. Among the brands that are well known to the customers, Amul, Kwality-walls and mother dairy are the most sought after brands. Other than these regulars brands, there are other brands such as Vadilal, havmor, Baskin Robbins, creambell, and others which constitute a small share in the market in terms of awareness level. Analysis with taking age, income (demographics) as the distinguishing factors: For analyzing the difference in factors leading to buying behavior due to difference in age, we have already divided the samples into 2 age groups 18-24 and 24-40 years. Frequency of purchase: Following is a chart depicting the total sample of people on the parameter of frequency of purchase divided age wise: It is clearly visible that 18-24 years consume ice-cream more frequently than the people in the age group of 25-40 years. 57% of people in the age group of 25-40 consume ice-cream occasionally which is only 31% in the case of the lower age group. On the other hand, the combined % of people consuming ice-cream on a weekly or daily basis for 24-40 year age group is only 25% as against 48% in case of 18-24 year olds with weekly consumption leading for the same. Factors consuming new ice cream product, brand or flavor: It can be observed from the above table that number of people preferring taste is much higher in case of 18-24 year olds. Also people in the age group of 24-40 years dont consider packaging or cheaper price as a leading factor while considering a new product. This is an important observation as Amul mainly sells on the lower price strategy. If it is offering a lower priced product, it needs to work on packaging as large numbers of people give importance to packaging in this group (also shown in the following chat). However it may or may not work so much on packaging if it is introducing a new product/flavor in the higher end markets. Willingness to buy sugar free ice cream at a higher price: To determine the level of health consciousness of the people and their willingness to buy the ice cream at a higher price if available, the data was collected, representation of which is given below: 70% of the people were not willing to buy the sugar free ice-cream at a higher price. This can be due to 2 factors: always better to ask from the respondents people are less health conscious people are price sensitive The options given to determine the same would not have been exhaustive. Possible the open-ended question wouldnt have been of much use. But yes, it is certainly better to ask from the respondents and due care would be taken next time. To further judge this, we distributed this data age wise to which how many people in which age group are willing to buy the ice-cream at a higher price. The representation of the findings is given below: In case of people in the age 25-40 years, over 42% of the people are willing to buy the sugar free ice cream if available at a higher price. However this falls to 32% In case of the age group 18-24 years. This can be again attributed to 2 factors: People in the lower age group are less health conscious or they are earning less so they are price sensitive or both. People in the higher age group are more health conscious or they are earning more so they can afford higher prices. Miscellaneous remarks about Amul ice creams: (optional in the survey) Amul is my favorite brand but more chocolate varieties are possible using different caramels and nuts. Its like since childhood I have an image that Kwality Walls is the best ice cream. Amul and Mother Dairy are my second best. They should come out with some good advertising campaigns for their ice creams and should really try out the social media to market their brand. It is good, but sometimes some flavors are out of market, especially mango flavor. The Amul ice cream should be readily available and the variety should be more. Also the marketing is very poor we do not see much. Amul seems to be a brand for common men the middle class, very well placed to cater to middle class people the biggest chunk of Indian populationalthough not very popular among the higher class These remarks about Amul ice cream highlight the fact that we have been saying all throughout out analysis. The variety in some products of Amul is not at par with the other brands or the needs of the consumers. The availability is on a lower side due to which some of the samples complained of the brand getting out of stock. Also the level of awareness of the ice creams of Amul among the consumers is very less due to which it suffers a lot. Amul needs to go aggressive on its promotion strategies so that it can expand its market share and perform well. Conclusion: From the above survey, we can conclude that major factors affecting Consumer behavior are Taste, Price, Packaging, Brand Perception and occasion. As Ice-cream is a variety seeking product, therefore the availability of Amul Ice-cream has a major impact on the actual consumption by the consumers and since Amul is very close to the market leader Kwality-walls. It has to take care of availability especially at round the corner stores and super markets where the sales of Ice-cream are maximum. Taste is considered the most important factor in determining the consumer behavior as per the survey. Amul Ice-cream is lagging behind in Taste as per the consumer perception when compared to Market leader. Attitude of the consumer is favorable towards Amul Ice cream and this can be seen through the comparative analysis of different brands in the market. Part of it can be attributed to Amuls brand perception across all the product categories countrywide. There is no significant difference in behavior towards purchasing Ice cream based on gender but the younger age group prefers to eat ice cream more than their older counterparts. Since most of the younger age group also falls in relatively lower income group, this shows the higher consumption trends by low income group in survey.