Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Milpa Agriculture vs. Industrial Agriculture Essay

The Milpa agriculture and Industrial agriculture have many similarities and differences. Milpa agriculture is a form of swidden agriculture that is practiced in Mesoamerica. Traditional Milpa is planted with maize, beans, and corn. Industrial agriculture is a modern faming that produces a life stock, poultry, and crops. The methods that industrial agriculture use to techno scientific, economic, and political. In Milpa agriculture some farmers use a coa stick in order to plan their crops and industrial farming the farmers use different machines. Industrial agriculture makes their job easier and faster by using the machines and technology. In Milpa agriculture is the totally opposite thing they don’t use technology in order to grow their crops it takes them longer to plant their crops by using simple method and one of the methods is the coa stick. Milpa agriculture has more than one plant such as maize, beans, and squash. Industrial agriculture only focuses on one plant. For example if industrial agriculture wants to grow maize they focus only in that specific plant that is being planted. Milpa is traditional in Mesoamerica. What I mean by this is that when milpa is planted in Mesoamerica is passed down in the family generations. Mesoamericans try to keep their tradition of planting milpa. In industrial agriculture is not really traditional to pass it down into their families mostly it is done because of the money. Industrial agriculture uses lots of pesticides in order to keep their crops from danger. By using pesticides they won’t lose lots of their crops. Milpa agriculture doesn’t really rely on the use of pesticides. Milpa agriculture does have the advantage of losing crops because they don’t use pesticides. That’s the reason in milpa agriculture more than one crop is incorporated at the same time they have the other crops to rely on not just on the maize. If industrial agriculture loses all their crops they won’t have anything to rely on because they only focus on growing on type of crops.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Importance of Meditation

What is meditation and what is it intended to accomplish? If you go to your doctor for stress related problems, she or he will likely tell you that perhaps the best treatment for stress is Meditation. So what is meditation? The word â€Å"meditation†, is derived from two Latin words: meditari (to think, to dwell upon, to exercise the mind) and mederi (to heal). Its Sanskrit derivation ‘medha' means wisdom. Meditation is a group of techniques that induce an altered state of focused attention and heightened awareness.Many years ago meditation was considered something just not meant for modern people, but now it has become very popular with all types of people. Published scientific and medical evidence has proved its benefits, but it still needs to be much understood. Various types of meditation that are recognized include transcendental meditation, prayer, Zen meditation, Taoist meditation, mindfulness meditation, and Buddhist meditation. Some methods of meditation may req uire the body being absolutely still or to be moved with controlled deliberation, while other types allow for free movement of the body.While the methods are different, the end goal of all types of meditation leads to a mind that is quieted, purified, and free from stress by the use of quiet contemplation and reflection. Meditation Categories. There are two general categories of meditation. Concentration techniques involve focusing awareness on a visual image, your breathing, a word, or a phrase. When a sound is used, it is typically a short word or a religious phrase, called a mantra, that is repeated mentally.The other one, called Opening-up techniques, involve a present-centered awareness of the passing moment, without mental judgment (Tart, 1994). Rather than concentrating on an object, sound, or activity, the meditator engages in quite awareness of the â€Å"here and now† without distracting thoughts. The zazen, or â€Å"just sitting†, technique of Zen Buddhism is a form of opening-up meditation. Effects of Meditation. Effects of meditation include physical, psychological, and spiritual effects.Some of physical effects include: Stabilizing blood pressure; lowering heart rate and respiratory rate; reducing stress hormones; improving mental functioning; improving brain wave coherence; improving the strength of the immune system. Some of psychological effects include: decreasing stress, anxiety, and depression; increasing joy of living; increasing positive emotions & attitude; increasing self-confidence; and increasing spiritual awareness. The spiritual effects of meditation include growing compassion; decreased sense of ego; unitive consciousness; self-realization and enlightenment.

Monday, July 29, 2019

My significant change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

My significant change - Essay Example But for the already born Croesus’s, when things turn upside down it is no less than like a catastrophe for them. This is the narrative of the experience of my friend’s father’s paralysis attack and how it transformed his life both negatively and positively and contributed toward his perspective and philosophy of life. It is the story of his family’s sudden change in fortune which transformed his life of luxury to that one of constant struggle and hardship. Sixteen years ago, it was one fine Friday of summer, encapsulated with seasonal monsoon rains. His father left for work with a promise that he would take them to their private farmhouse to spend the weekend. His mother, a young eastern wife, got busy in the preparation for the evening and he and his other two sisters and brother were counting the minutes in extreme excitement. Life could not have been better, when in sudden shift of fate everything toppled. By noon, their car driver arrived home and requ ested his mother to accompany him to the hospital. The young lady was shaken on this occurrence but prepared herself for something very distressing to come forth. On reaching the hospital, she was informed that her husband had a severe brain hemorrhage and 80% of his body had been affected by the attack.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Globalization and Changing Market Trends Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Globalization and Changing Market Trends - Essay Example This may be assessed at present as already happening, in which the converging global market has created a conduit of goods and services available at almost the same prices for different countries. Stressing that the world is flat, as Levitt used it- figuratively, at least - opts to become competitive in a global market where regional, historical, and geographical divisions are increasingly becoming irrelevant. Globalization is suggested to have created a playing field in which the world is flattened, thereby allowing all participants to level off with one another and participate equally in the global market. Competitive playing fields are leveled between industrial and emerging markets, which is a product of a convergence of workflow software and of personal computer with fiber-optic micro cable, not known to human race twenty-five years ago. The surge of technology is likened to a jet plane that zooms upward, changing economic activities of domestic and global markets. Levitt indicates in his literature that the world is increasingly and inevitably becoming one, putting the multinational corporations into obsolete position, which were abounding at the time the literature was written. Levitt had a keen and clear foresight with his assumption that companies that do not adapt to the new global realities will become victims of those that do (p. 11). This has become a reality at present, in which products that do not cope with the demands of globalization and technological advancement will certainly find themselves in financial collapse. This is the reason why Kodak and Mitsubishi have to align their photo developing techniques with that of a digitalized method, since using the old film developing technique will surely assail the companies with lower income due to inability to keep track with new technology. Strategic management of firms should hence be congruent to the changing global markets. Currently, the world's needs and desires have been irrevocably homogenized as an outcome of globalization, a trend not existing in 1983, of which Levitt had been keen to make a foresight. In his views, he stated that this homogeneity makes the multinational corporation obsolete and the global corporation absolute (p. 3). This may have been true had the multinational corporations not kept up with the growing demands of a globalized market. However, due to their ability to keep up through market research, multinational corporations are still able to hold their positions strongly, updating their product lines and technology alongside current trends. Similarly, more and more European counties trail the path to offshore some or all of their operations with the advent of globalization. In this regard, foreign direct investment increases, which involve transfer of operating capacity for functions like production and transportation (Gampenrieder, 2006). Offshore strategies provide companies the capabilities to aim for distinctive, sustainable, and competitive advantages that require relocation of operating

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Tuberculosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Tuberculosis - Essay Example The disease is spread by people who have the disease when they either cough, sneeze, spit, or talk. One sneeze can send about 40,000 droplets full of the infection. A person with the disease can spread it to 10-15 people a year with prolonged contact. Tuberculosis is often a difficult disease to diagnose, because of how hard it is to grow the bacterium inside laboratory conditions. Various tests must be done, including x-rays, smears, cultures, skin tests, as well as a look at past medical history. New ways of faster more accurate types of detection of the disease are underway, hoping these quicker ways of detection can help with controlling the disease. Treatment for the drug is given in the form of antibiotics. Long terms of these antibiotics are needed in order to clear the entire bacterium from the body, and is often treated with a combination of antibiotics. However, there are risks involved when combining the different antibiotics, even thought it is helpful incase the bacterium becomes drug resistant to one of the antibiotics. Even with the fast spreading nature of the disease, prevention is still underway. In 1993, the World Health Organization declared that the fast spreading Tuberculosis disease was in fact a global health emergency, and a global plan has gone into effect which aims to save lives from Tuberculosis between 2006-20015. The prevention of Tuberculosis is split into two waves of attack. In the first wave, people who are known to have Tuberculosis are treated, and all people with immerse contact with that person are also found and treated. The second step in prevention the spread of the deadly disease is vaccines. Vaccines are given to children; however an effective vaccine is not available for adults. In some countries, the vaccines is being required to be given to all children under the age of three to try to combat the rapidly spreading bacterium. Several new methods of preventing the disease are also underway. One such

German unification Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

German unification - Essay Example The Schleswig-Holstein War humbled Denmark, the Austro-Prussian War ended in the defeat of Austria-Hungary and the Franco-Prussian War completed German unification by the defeat of France. (Mahajan, 1999: 3) Thus, Germany turned out to be supreme and one of the most powerful sovereign states of the region. There was no single event that determined the whole process of unification; rather, many factors worked in combination and contributed to the completion of uplift progression of the German nation. All the strata of society including political leadership, intellectuals, philosophers, poets, writers, economists, military personnel, students, farmers and civil society added their share in the whole development. Otto Von Bismarck, the iron-Chancellor of Prussia, played the most formidable role in this regard.1 His skill as a diplomat was unrivalled during his reign as chancellor of Prussia and Germany. The mastery he showed in foreign policy was such that he was able to outwit all othe r powers and make their leaders look pathetic. (Graham, 2007:1) The Vienna settlement of 1815 conceived the idea of German Confederation of thirty-nine states rather than the unification of the country.2 The decisions taken in the Vienna settlement were extremely unsatisfactory one for the German people especially the moderates and nationalists, who were expecting concrete course of action which could lead them towards the way to unification. But instead of unification, only the positions of different German and non-German princes were restored under Confederation as they had been before the intervention of Napoleon Bonaparte.3 The main objective behind German Confederation was to guarantee external and internal peace of Germany and the independence of the member states. The thirty-nine states agreed not to declare war on one another, and had the obligation of helping one another in the hour of need. (Leads,

Friday, July 26, 2019

Operations Management Principles Research Paper

Operations Management Principles - Research Paper Example According to the study conducted management has always been important to businesses and sustainability of organizations nowadays. All the functions and activities in a group of people must have proper management to ensure the success and that efforts given will not be put to waste. It also allows people to coordinate with one another in working and achieving certain goals. Management can be considered to be a field of study, a class of people, and a process. Management as a field of study means focusing on the principles, functions and techniques in the practice of that profession. Management may pertain to a class or level of people which can be seen in all organizations. They are responsible for practicing the managerial activities while process is the managerial activities itself. The activities involve POSDICON or planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. Management can be compared to investment as its goal is to maximize the results from the resources used. It focuses on getting the highest possible return from all resources involved in the process. In simple terms, management is concerned with how things are accomplished. It involves the ways on how a group or individuals get the set goals which is said to be both an art and a science. Management is considered as an art when it focuses on the method of doing things. When management is considered as an art, it must be able to apply the skills needed by a person on certain practice and can be enhanced through experience. It requires the manager to use his knowledge, experience and skills in making solutions to existing problems. Ernest Dale even pointed out that management involves more art than science since the managerial abilities is owned by personnel that requires thinking. On the other hand, management is considered as a science when it involves a system which means the discipline is an organized body of knowledge following certain verified principles and outcomes. It should be able to prove results as true in any kinds of situations. It is different from physical sciences which are very specific and exact since management involves people and human behavior is changing and hard to predict making management to be categorized under social sciences (Khandkar, n.d.). Now that management is thoroughly discussed, operations management would be the next to be defined. Operation management concentrates on managing processes to create desired outcomes and products. Product development, production and distribution are under the focus of that discipline or profession. It is also associated with process controls like inventory control and quality control. Purchases must be studied thoroughly as to be exact with the needed amount of products to be made. Processes are also analyzed and studied to ensure their effectiveness. In that discipline, standards and measurements are needed to enhance the performance of the internal processes. The way operations management is observed in a business depends upon the industry in which the organization falls under (McNamara, n.d.). Usually, operations managers perform the following tasks: budget preparations for programs, company programs for the company, inventory control, logistic responsibilities and employee supervision.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Analyse your school's behaviour management policy and evaluate how it Essay

Analyse your school's behaviour management policy and evaluate how it meets the needs for safeguarding children in relation to y - Essay Example Therefore, the most dependable solution would be to ensure that there is effective classroom management on the part of the teacher. To get this process started a teacher should take their time to know more about the children that are in his/ her classroom. Once the teacher gets well acquainted with this information, they can be on the upper hand with better techniques and strategies on how to relate and communicate with the child in the classroom. Further on that, this information will help the teacher determine how the children will be positioned in the classroom setting based on their behaviours. According to Marzano (2003), the actions that a teacher pursues in the classroom can have a huge impact on the child and / or children with regard to their individual achievements in school. Based on the information provided, it can be revealed that when a teacher takes their time to know more about a child who is in their classroom - This trend will in turn aid in proper behaviour managem ent in the classroom setting and dynamics. Therefore, this paper seeks to showcase that the mandated school behaviour management policies aid in safeguarding children in all perspectives while they are in school. This is because the policies outline the roles, duties and responsibilities of each child as well as their teachers. According to CUHP (2011), behaviour management policy relates to the action of ensuring that children in all nature of schools have their behaviour monitored through approved strategies and techniques so as to ensure that they behave accordingly. That is; in a positive manner with their peers and/ or parents. Behaviour management policies are developed by individuals such as the staff, parents and governors. These policies bid on building and encouraging positive behaviour, fostering safety in the school setting, establishing friendships and relationships between children. Additionally, the policies incorporate the teachers who are in constant contact with th e children. According to a report by the House of Commons Education Committee (2011), behaviour and discipline polices need to be outlined, put into place and practiced in every school. The most important aspect is that they should be followed up by the parents, teachers and children so as to continuously promote good behaviour in schools. In the current school setting, the behaviour management policies focus on: Anti-bullying; Anti racism; Cyber bullying; Ensuring safety; Suspensions; Exclusions; Choice of language used. According to CUHP (2011), behaviour management policies yield a lot of positive benefits when they are practiced in the school setting. These benefits include: Development of a sense of judgement in emotion: Emotions need to be nurtured. This is due to the reason that different individuals have different kinds of emotions which could either be positive or negative. Positive emotions may range from being caring, respectful, patience, loving and confidence. Whereas, negative emotions may range from being jealous, resentful, fearful and self pity just to mention a few (Valencia n.d). Therefore, behaviour management policies help the child to have a clear sense of judgment with how they should react to different situations in the environment that they are in. Rise of sustainable friendships are relationships: As they say, â€Å"

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Activist Letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Activist Letter - Essay Example This moisture brings about the cooling effect on the earth surface. In brief, these mean that chop the trees off and raise the global temperatures. If the global temperature increases then there will be a percentage increase of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Trees regulate the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels by utilizing it during photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide level has consequently accumulated to alarming levels due to tree falling. Large amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere deplete the ozone layer (Prout, Tanya and Daniel 172). The harmful ultraviolet sun rays, therefore, reach the ground thus causing skin cancer. Trees are known to provide a cheap source of energy. Charcoal and firewood is mostly used by people in most part of the world to provide energy. Industries and local homes benefit from this as coal, and petroleum products seem to be expensive compared to tree products. Once one tree is brought down, it should be a must for it to be replaced by planting another tree. Failure to do that, it will result in the decline in biodiversity or it may cause an extinction of many species. Even those using trees as sources of energy will find it hard if trees are cut and not replaced. Down of microbial community are exposed and killed by the adverse weather caused by cutting down of trees, hence bacteria’s helps in recycling nutrients that might pollute water and render it unclean for drinking In conclusion, if the biodiversity of this earth is to be maintained then let the trees are protected and conserved. It is as if every living thing on earth depends on trees for clean air, water and as energy sources just to name a

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

BHS 427 - Health Care Finance (Module 4-SLP) Essay

BHS 427 - Health Care Finance (Module 4-SLP) - Essay Example If the husband or wife has paid Medicare taxes when employed, such people are enrolled to Part A without paying monthly premium. If Medicare taxes have not been paid during employment, they can apply for Part A and pay premium which changes year by year. The premium rate for 2009 is as follows: Part B: Medicare medical insurance is taken mainly to avail those services which Part A does not cover and it is optional. It offers the rights like doctors’ services, outpatient care and other medical services. The premium is decided by the individual. Some pay a standard monthly premium of $96.40 and others on the basis of their income. A case if costs more than the â€Å"fixed-loss cost threshold amount (a dollar amount by which the costs of a case must exceed payments in order to qualify for outliers).† (Outlier payments, 2006). Medicare payments to hospitals fall under two categories-prospective payment and physician payment. The prospective payments include costs like operating cost, capital cost and outlier cost. Operating cost is paid if the patient has to stay long in the hospital. Capital cost includes cost for treatment and care to the patient. If a patient uses extraordinary resources then outlier cost is charged which is an additional payment. Physician payment is calculated on the basis of current procedural terminology (CPT) codes. The payment rate depends upon the Work RVU, Practise expense RVU and Malpractice RVU which may vary by region. What are the Medicare premiums and coinsurance rate for 2009?: Answer: For each benefit period you pay. (2008). U S Department of health & human services. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from

Monday, July 22, 2019

Zimbabwe Taxation Essay Example for Free

Zimbabwe Taxation Essay The tax system currently enforced in Zimbabwe under the authority of the Income tax Act Chap 23. 06 with Acts like the Capital Gains Act Chap 23. 01, Finance Act Chap 23. 04 and the Excise duties Act as complimentary. The system evolved from traditional ideologies perpetuated from pre pre-colonial era up to now. The incidence of tax from a traditional perspective occurred from as far as the Rozvi State who was allowed to maintain their power and control by the Portuguese Traders which resulted in the development of the tributary system. In which tribute was to be paid in form of farm produce, animal skins, fish and various goods. Every person under the protection of the kingdom and within the chief’s jurisdiction was to pay tribute from their occupational activity. This tributary system was mainly instigated by military control and any person revoking this tradition was punished. This traditional view is reflected in the modern tax system as there are some synonymous traits which have of course been duly developed over time. The presence of the British settlers saw the tax system being inclined towards politics and social classes or race in other words. In 1894 Hut Tax was introduced and was set at 10 shillings per hut and this tax was imposed on each adult male. The tax was paid to the British South Africa company which was the agent of the colonial government in the area even though it was initially authorised by the Colonial Office in London. Hut Tax was paid in the form of money, labour, grain or livestock and the colonial Authorities in this case the British were the beneficiaries. This tax benefited the white minority as they raised money, enhanced their economy’s liquidity (cash wise, thus supporting the currency), facilitating further development of the white minority. The whole purpose of a tax system to benefit the people at large through the services provided by the government was rather defeated as the greater proportion of tax was paid by the black majority for the benefit of the white minority. Poll tax was also another type of tax introduced by the colonial authorities again aimed at the male adult. It was set at 1 pound per male adult; 10 shilling tax on each excess wife was also introduced. Administering of tax policies was mainly set to compel the African to surrender his labour power to the settler economy so as to depend on them for the money with which they could meet their tax obligation. Initially Blacks owned the most cattle, sheep, had a bigger population thus consumed more meaning more sales tax was expected to be paid. Under the bid to frustrate black expectations of prospering and to reduce the chance of them gaining economic advantage over the whites a host of other taxes were recommended by the Southern Rhodesia Native Affairs Committee (these were later approved). The recommendations were made up of a plot to: * Introduce Dog tax * Implementing the taxation of all cattle * The continuation of poll tax * Progressive taxation of polygamous wives * A marriage fee of 5 pounds was to be set to be paid by the husband with an allowable remittance of 5 shillings for every month worked for a European Employer. (African Heritage,pg 65) At face value without any need for a comprehensive analysis it is quite evident that accumulating more of anything from cattle, increase in consumption, children and even another wife meant more tax due to be paid to the colonial authorities. Cattle tax was to be paid on the cattle owned by the people and dog tax likewise had to be paid for every dog kept. Penalties were applied through acts of confistication of cattle on most cases. The Southern Rhodesian Tax Ordinance of 1918 was not very different from the tax policies which were implemented in South Africa and the United Kingdom, though the income tax rates were not very high. Deductions were allowable for the contributions that were made to the pension funds and also generous primary abatements for dependants and as well as the secondary abatements for dependants. Insurance premiums and medical expenses were also allowed as a deduction The Pay as You Earn (P. A. Y. E) system of collecting Tax income was also adopted and it mainly operated with reference to an employed person. The definition of person in this regard mainly focuses on the natural person as it is the natural person and not the Juristic (for example Companies) that earn the employment income on which P. A. Y. E will be charged. Companies were also taxed in their own capacity and were required to pay a standard rate of 7s. 3d. n the ?. Special incentives for investment and exports were also given to benefit international trade and encourage investments in the companies established in the Zimbabwean Economy. Personal tax obligations were payable by individuals on a sliding scale ranging from  £2 per annum to  £12 per annum, this range was dependant on the income Death duties were relatively low by world standards, and were payable on a sliding scale rising to a maximum of 2s. 6d. in the pound currency, which is reached on a taxable amount of approximately  £42,000. Stamp duties were set on numerous documents recording transactions between persons and on services provided at various registries. These included a transfer duty at the rate of  £1 per cent, for the first  £4,000 of the value of property transferred and  £2 per cent, on the excess over  £4,000. Customs duties were imposed in a single column tariff on the bulk of the goods that were imported into Rhodesia. The customs duties covered protective duties for Rhodesian industries and revenue duties over a wide range of consumer goods. Almost all raw materials for industry had a 0 % duty (that is they were free of duty), as were the variety of capital goods. Excise duties were imposed on all wines, spirits, beer, cigarettes, manufactured tobacco, and motor spirit produced in Rhodesia. The consumption based sales tax, was mainly levied at the retail stage, and was the buying and selling actually occurred. The tax rate charged was 8d. Some goods were exempted from tax and thus immune to tax, these include basic food stuff, raw materials for production and capital goods for use by the industry Motor vehicle tax ranged from  £12 per annum for ordinary passenger vehicles to  £72 per annum for the heaviest public service vehicle with a charge of  £144 for diesel-powered vehicles. The Motor Vehicle tax could be paid in three instalments at the beginning of each licensing term of four months. Tax was also imposed on minor duties like trading activities, betting, and television and wireless receivers. The local government of the colonial authority attested that the tax will be confined to the field rates on the property. The accumulation of the tax payable by blacks on everything and every income that accrued to them led to an uprising (among other causative factors) resulting in the Chimurenga war which ended in 1980 the year in which Rhodesia became Zimbabwe. The tax system applied by the new regime and government was not very different from the one administered in the colonial era except that it was altered to shift the benefit to the black majority at large. Taxation cannot be divorced from economic conditions and indicators and to some extent politics. The post independence period was highly characterised with many developmental projects implemented by the Zimbabwean government through provision of social services, drought reliefs, subsidies for companies owned by the government. However this government expenditure engineered a budget deficit which had a negative impact on the tax as higher taxes were now required to meet the expenditures. Tax rates in the 1980s additions The tax system evolved gradually being influenced by economic conditions that occurred like the hyper inflationary era in 2007, 2008. The evolvement of Zimbabwe’s Tax system has seen the emergence of the Department of Taxes and the Department of Customs and Excise to form the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (ZIMRA) in Jan 2001 but which started operating in September 2001. ZIMRA was established to enhance revenue collection and trade facilitation. (FORE 2006, pg 3) Currently, the Ministry of Finance is directly responsible for the fiscal management and thus have a direct impact on the tax system. In reference to the Constitution of Zimbabwe (Sec 102 and 201) all fees and other public revenues are paid to the Consolidated Reserve fund. The proceeds from this fund enable the government to meet its expenditure, provide services to the people. The legal framework, the administration of tax policies and the collection of taxes has been placed under the Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (ZIMRA) in the authority of the Commissioner General. The tax system under the provisions of the Income tax Act stipulates that tax is not levied on profits as in some countries but it is levied on taxable income. Zimbabwean Tax system use a source based approach in which tax is levied from income whose source is deemed to be from Zimbabwe. Not every income of every person is taxable; income from Local Authorities or institutions like POSB, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) is exempt from tax this is according to sec14 of the Income Tax Act. Dividends from a company incorporated in Zimbabwe are also exempt from tax. The government has implemented reactive approaches towards taxation rather than a proactive one this is seen y the Fiscalisation of cash registers in order to reduce the losses in Value added tax (VAT) Collection as VAT is the major contributor of tax revenue mainly because it is consumption based, and orrowing from principles of micro economics it can be proven that people consume whether they have income or not from the marginal propensity to consume concept . The fiscalisation of cash registers can increase the amount VAT collected from businesses as the transactions incurred can be monitored through a memory card placed in the registers which are linked to the revenue authorities. The Value Added Tax Act [Chap 23. 11] is the main authority which governs the collection of VAT Tax bands are used on individual income in countries like South Africa, Zambia and Botswana. The use of tax bands makes PAYE a progressive tax which is redistributive. This leads to the reasoning that the proportion of tax revenue from PAYE should be higher than that from the non progressive taxes such as VAT and customs duty. In Zimbabwe tax is classified under proportional tax, progressive tax, regressive tax and direct tax. Individuals’ income from employment is taxed using tax bands, while income from trade or investment has been taxed at the same rate as that for corporate tax which was a flat rate 30% in 2009 and has gone down to 25% in 2010. The tax free band for income from employment was set at US$150 a month when the economy was dollarized in 2009 and was increased marginally to US$160 a month The advent of the Inclusive Government in 2009 in the post inflationary period where the tax and revenue base were dwindling resulted in the implementation of tax reforms to revive the tax system. This was difficult especially in the collection of corporate tax as most companies were operating below capacity. Corporate tax currently charged at 25% . Since tax is highly linked to development, tax incentive to foreign companies willing to invest in the country have been made so as to alleviate development. Tax concessions under special mining licences are also given, windfall gain tax is also charged in the mining sector. The holder’s of special mining rights are charged at a lower rate of 15% and are subject to Windfall Gain Tax which is levied on the additional profits. This profit is not attributable to production but occurs when the price of a certain commodity rises above a certain level (AFRODAD 2011, pg19). This tax charge is currently set at 31. 176%. The government once made an attempt to exempt ZIMPLATS from paying tax on additional profit tax but ZIMRA never implemented this action and still went on to collect tax from it. The Income Tax Act is revised and reformed from time to time this is the responsibility of the Tax Steering Committee which was set up soon after the Inclusive Government was established. This Committee comprises of the minister of Finance Mr. T Biti, some representatives from the private sector and ZIMRA itself. The committee aims to solve the challenge faced by tax authorities in Zimbabwe of trying to broaden tax base and at the same time simplify tax collection and easing the debt burden. The Final Deduction system is also a notable development of Zimbabwe’s tax system. It is a system in which the employer is required to deduct P.  A. Y. E from the employee’s income in a way that it becomes the final tax. The final deduction system (FDS) was implemented in 2000 but it was initially introduced in 1997/98 (AFRODAD 2011, pg 18). The directive governing the deduction of P. A. Y. E under the F. D. S system is taken from the 13th schedule of the Income Tax Act. There is then no need for the employees to submit tax returns at the end of the tax year.

Shooting an Elephant by Rebecca Bonner Essay Example for Free

Shooting an Elephant by Rebecca Bonner Essay Choose an essay which puts across a strong personal belief in a clear and convincing manor. George Orwell’s ‘Shooting an Elephant,’ is an essay which takes place in imperial Burma where he is a police officer working on behalf of the British Empire. He is resented by the people who pressures him into shooting an elephant, where he describes himself as being a meaningless puppet in front of the Burmese crowd. Throughout this essay he also delivers his strong personal beliefs towards his hatred of imperialism, despite working for the colonies, he mentions several times of how much he despises it and sees it as ‘evil. ’ We first capture his opposing view of it when he is discussing his job in Burma, he detests it and hates the way in which it oppresses the native people, ‘at that time, I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing.’ He voices his disapproval of it and it is very reactionary, the word ‘evil’ is used without qualification, this shows a perhaps lack of detailed knowledge of the political issues, or maybe he just feels so disgusted by it, he uses such a devilish word to describe his view. He then goes on to describe how he is against his own government and was on the Burmese’s side, despite his hatred for them, ‘Theoretically – and secretly, of course – I was all for the Burmese and all against their oppressors, the British.’ Here he shows his true opinion of the Empire, though with the use of the hyphens, adding in how he kept it a secret, showing his lack of courage to publicly oppress the Empire. Even although he has very conflicting views towards the native population, there is also times we see him appearing deeply sympathetic towards the Burmese and their suffering, ‘all these oppressed me with an intolerable sense of guilt.’ The interesting use of the word ‘oppression’ suggests he is feeling the same way as the natives and in some way shares their pain. His sympathy and description of the Burmese people is the main factor of why he thinks imperialism is an evil thing, by mentioning this often, it helps him back up his opposing view in a clear and convincing manor. He then goes on to say how he is stuck between his hatred of the Empire and for the native people, ‘With one part of my mind I thought of the British Raj as an unbreakable tyranny, as something clamped down, in saecula saeculorum, upon the will of prostrate peoples;’, This part of his mind directly opposing the Empire and continuing upon his strong belief, this unbreakable dictatorship suggesting  that they could never win against the British, giving them a helpless and sorrowful status. Orwell uses his incident with the elephant to illustrate the power relationship which exists between the colonizer and the colonized, ‘It was a tiny incident in itself, but it gave me a better glimpse than I had had before of the real nature of imperialism – the real motives for which despotic governments act.’ The elephant’s actions are described in a comical, hyperbolic tone, ‘raided’ juxtaposed with ‘fruit stalls’; ‘inflicting violence’s’ upon a ‘rubbish van,’ which evoke a degree of affection and sympathy for the elephant. The uneven balance of power with also the sympathy towards the elephant describes what imperialism has caused within the town, evidence in which helps back up his opinion of the wrong-doings of imperialism its consequences. Orwell is then forced upon to kill the harmless beast, he shoots the animal using a gun that is not suitable for an animal of its size, in a slow agonising death, ‘the thick blood welled out of him like red velvet, but he still did not die.’ He wants the reader to engage with the terrible suffering that the animal has to endure as a result of his weak decision, to show the meaningless barbaric acts that can arise from a tyrannical government, ‘afterwards I was very glad that the coolie had been killed; it put me legally in the right and it gave me a sufficient pretext for shooting the elephant.’ Orwell leaves the scene and shows his guilt and self-disgust also that he is weak-willed, leaving the scene before the elephant is dead. The elephant could be seen as a symbol of the British Empire, once a vast powerful force, now a small, weak position. Using this powerful use of emotive language of how the poor beast died, he tries to convince the reader to agree with him that the whole idea of imperialism is wrong and does this rather successfully through his various techniques of emotive and sympathetic language throughout the essay. In conclusion, Orwells style is a major key factor on putting across his strong personal belief of his opposing views towards imperialism. He uses powerful word choice in a personal tone in order to try and convince the reader of why he was forced to make the decisions he made due to the consequences that had to do with imperialism and does so very successfully.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Gender inequality in the developing world

Gender inequality in the developing world Gender differences in labour market outcomes affect whether women enter the marketplace, care for children, or partake in other labour activities. In the developing world, gender differences in political access and wages can have large effects on the well-being of females and their families. Discuss gender differences that exist in the developing world, why they are important, and what role they play in shaping outcomes of females and children. Are there policy prescriptions that would increase societal welfare? TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introductionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦3 On Gender differences and well-beingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦4 Gender Discrimination, Property Rights and Investment in Agricultureà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..6 Impact of Reservations in India on Policy Decisionsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.8 Prevalence of adverse sex ratio à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.11 Where are all the Missing Women à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.12 Conclusionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..17 Referencesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦19 INTRODUCTION: For centuries, women have played the role of a homemaker, caring for her children. While men were the breadwinners of the family. This stereotypical image of men and women, though less profound is still to be found in many parts of the world. This is especially true of the developing countries. Biologically, women and men are different, beyond the obvious. Their brains function differently. Hormonal differences make them behave in different ways. However, the sexist attitude towards gender differences has been forced not only by the government, but also by almost all the institutions of public life. In the developing world, we frequently find that women are discriminated against by men. In many countries, a girl-child is considered to be a burden, and may not receive the same care that a boy would. A woman is often forbidden to work outside the house as the society frowns upon such activities. And also women continually receive lower wages than men for the same work. In the past decade, the governments of many countries have put into place many policies to help empower women. Some policies have been successful, while others have not done much to reduce this gender gap. Various studies have been conducted to see whether the policies were actually implemented, and if yes, what impact they had on womens welfare. Many studies have been conducted to measure the impact of these biases against women, on the welfare of their families, on their well-being, and their status in society. On Gender differences Well-being One such study by Esther Duflo (2000) measures the impact of a cash transfer, specifically old age pension, on the nutritional status of a child, depending on the gender of the recipient. Policies targeted towards improving womens position relative to mens are desired not only for equity basis, but also for the effects they may have on childrens welfare. Being malnourished can affect a childs physical and mental health. Hence, receiving adequate nutrition at a young age is important for economic growth, distribution, and welfare. Thomas (1990, 1994) found evidence that income or assets in the hands of women are associated with larger improvements in child health, and larger expenditure shares on household nutrients, health and housing (Duflo, 2000; pg.1). Her paper investigates whether redistributing resources from men to women would increase investment in children. With the end of the apartheid the benefits and coverage of the South African social pension program was expanded in the early 1990s to include the black population. The program was successfully implemented with almost a universal coverage. This led to a permanent exogenous change in income, after household formation. Most families are extended households, and over a quarter of African children under the age of five live with a pension recipient. The paper takes into account the weight for height, and height for age of children below the age of five to see whether the pension recipients gender has any effect on these indicators. The South African social pension was started in 1928, but it was only after 1993 that the same amount was paid to all racial groups. Women over 60 years, and men over 65 years are eligible for pension, subject to a means test. During the Apartheid era, the system was racially discriminatory in many respects. Firstly, different means tests were applied to each race. For Blacks benefits were withdrawn for incomes larger than R700, while for Whites the limit was at R2250. Secondly, benefits for Whites were 10 times higher than those for Blacks. Thirdly, Whites received pensions through postal offices, while Blacks had to collect their pension through mobile pay points that didnt cover much area. Finally, officials often intentionally took people off the list, or limited access of legally eligible Blacks to save the cost of pensions. The weight for height of children reflects short run nutrition and illnesses and recovers quickly once proper nutrition is resumed. The nutrition in turn is determined by individual preferences, non-labour income, the weights given to members of the household, and child specific variables. Before controlling for the presence of non-eligible members over 50, the coefficient for girls is positive but insignificant. However, when the controls are introduced it improves the weight for height of girls by 1.19 standard deviations, if pension is received by a woman. For boys, the coefficient is positive, but insignificant. However, a pension received by a man has a small, negative and insignificant effect on girls weight for height. Also it seems that there exists an all female link, as the pension seems to be most effective if received by the mothers mother. Some problems which may bias upward the estimates of the effect of pension on weight for height are discussed and are as follows; Fir stly, being a three generation would mean that the household is relatively healthy. Secondly, the pension program might have led to a change in the composition of the household. For this Duflo examines the height for age of young children, as this reflects nutrition status over the life of the child. Height for age is different from weight for height, in the sense that it depends on accumulated investments over the life of the child. Nutrition at a very early age has long lasting consequences on child height. And the possibility of catch-up skeletal growth after an episode of low growth in infancy is limited (Duflo, 2000; pg.13). Her basic idea is to compare the differences between height of children in eligible and non-eligible households and between children exposed to the program for a fraction of their lives and children exposed all their lives. Results show that pensions received by women led to an increase of 1.16 standard deviations in the height of girls, and had a much smaller effect on boys. While pensions received by men didnt have any impact on the height of either girls or boys. Duflo concludes that the nutritional status of a girl improves significantly if the pension receiver is a woman, and has an insignificant negative effect if the pension receiver is a man. She tests for these by measuring the weight for height, and height for age of children between 6 to 60 months of age. Also this result rejects the unitary model of the household and suggests that pensions received to women may increase efficiency more than pensions received by men. Gender Discrimination, Property Rights and Investment in Agriculture It is often the quality of the economic institutions of a society that determine its economic growth. This is especially true of property rights, as investment incentives depend upon expectations of rights over returns to that investment. Goldstein and Udry (2004) conduct a study in Akwapim, Ghana and examine the connection between property rights and agricultural investment, and in turn to agricultural productivity. In much of Africa the Western notions of private property doesnt exist. Most of the land cultivated by farmers is controlled by the local leaders. It is allocated to individuals, and families based on their perceived need and political influence. In many African societies, agricultural production is managed by individuals or households. Soil fertility primarily depends on an individuals decision regarding the span of the fallow period, i.e. when the land is left uncultivated to regain fertility. Rights over a plot can be lost while it is fallow, and induces shortening of the fallow period. There also exist opportunity costs and transition costs associated with fallowing. They select four village clusters, and within each cluster they select 60 married couples. They measure productivity via returns to cassava/maize cultivation on similar plots of men and women within a household in a given year. Conditioning on plot characteristics and household fixed effects, they find women produce much less cassava/maize than their husbands. Hence, earn lower profits. They also find that education and age are not responsible for this difference in productivity. They do however find that duration of the last fallow period is strongly positively related to current profits. Gender of the cultivator has no effects on profits, once they condition for the duration of the last fallow. Tenure security seems to be closely related to fallow decisions. Due to the complex and flexible property rights women often rely on allocated household land, given by their husbands. Men are more active on the land market. A primary reason for uncertainty of tenure, especially for women, is that leaving the land fallow might weaken future rights over the plot. Leaving the land fallow, might signal a lack of sufficient need by the village heads. A second model is based on the idea that tenure security varies with the political position and method of acquisition of land. Their results reflect that tenure security depends highly on the individuals position in the political and social hierarchy. But even conditioning on the individuals position, it depends on the circumstances through which she obtained the particular plot. The complex and overlapping rights to land act as barriers to investment in land fertility. The difference in profits within a household, from similar plots can be attributed to the fact that women are generally not in a position of power. They tend to leave land fallow for a shorter duration, to maintain their rights over the plot. Impact of Reservations in India on Policy Decisions In a paper by Chattopadhyay Duflo (2004) they study the impact of political reservations on womens leadership and policy decisions. They show that reservation of seats for women impact the investment decisions on public goods and are biased towards the gender of the Pradhan. In 1993 an amendment to the constitution of India made it mandatory for all village councils (GPs) to reserve one-third of all positions of chief (Pradhan) to women. The paper focuses on two districts, Birbhum in West Bengal, and Udaipur in Rajastan, and compares investments made in reserved and unreserved GPs. The major responsibilities of the GP are to administer local infrastructure, and identify targeted welfare recipients. The main source of funding is the state, and the money is allocated through four broad schemes: the Jwahar Rozgar Yojana for infrastructure, a small drinking water scheme, funds for welfare programs, and a grant for GP functioning. The GP has full flexibility in allocation of these funds. The Panchayat is required to setup two meetings per year in which all voters may participate. Additionally, the Pradhan must setup regular office hours, where villagers can lodge complaints. In both Rajastan, and West Bengal the policy was strictly implemented. And women elected once due to the reservation system were not re-elected. A rationale for reservations for women is that, the cost of running for office is higher for a woman than for a man. These high costs can prevent women from participating in the political process in the absence of reservations. So the two candidates must have an equal chance of winning. The outcome will then be symmetric around the median voter. Also, when women run because of the reservation, this can increase womens utility and the median voters utility. Some limitations of this model are: Firstly, when the Pradhan is a woman it might be easier for women to influence policy process ex-post, moving policy in a pro-woman direction. Secondly, after reservation, relatively weak women with strong pro-women views will be as likely to run as strong women with more moderate preferences. Thirdly, the model ignores the possibility of strategic behaviour on the part of the elected official, which would exist in case of future elections. Chattopadhyay Duflo (2004) use the data on formal requests and complaints that are brought to the Pradhan. Since complaining is costly (time consuming), the complaints reasonably measure preferences of individuals. Women are more likely to have a higher cost of complaining given the social norms that limit their mobility, and conditions under which they can speak to a man. Hence, womens complaints will be more biased towards extreme preferences. In the model, allocations are made closer to womens needs in reserved GPs because of the selection of women candidates and possibly due to the reduced cost of speaking to a women, and not because women are more responsive to complaints of women. Authors find that in West Bengal, drinking water and roads were the issues most frequently raised by women. Next were welfare programs, followed by housing and electricity. Issues of roads, irrigation, drinking water and education were raised by men. In Rajasthan, drinking water, roads, and welfare programs were the issues most frequently raised by women. This pattern reflects the activities of both men and women in these areas. Women are in charge of collecting drinking water, and benefit from the welfare programs. In West Bengal, they work on roads. In Rajasthan, both men and women work on roads, and so have a common motive. But, men travel frequently in search of jobs and so have a stronger need for good roads. In both Rajasthan and West Bengal the gender of the Pradhan affects the provision of public goods. Individual women are not particularly more responsive to the needs of women and men in their communities. Rather it is because their own preferences are more aligned to the pr eferences of women that they end up serving them better. These results are unaffected when controlled for the Pradhans characteristics ( like education, experience, social status etc). This suggests that the allocation of public goods can be largely attributed to the gender of the Pradhan, rather than on its other effects. Prevalence of adverse sex ratio The aim of the paper by Khanna et al (2003) is to determine whether the skewed sex ratio in India can be explained by less favourable treatment of girls in infancy. They measure deaths from all causes in infants aged less than one year, in a community health project undertaken in urban India. According to the 2001 census in India, the sex ratio was at 933 females per 1000 males. Ordinarily, females outnumber males, possibly because the extra X chromosome makes them less susceptible to infectious diseases. However, the skewed sex ratio in India suggests the existence of sex discrimination. Despite the banning of sex determination tests, the practise of female infanticide has continued. Even after birth, mortality remains higher in females, and girls are more than 30%-50% more likely to die between their 1st and 5th birthdays. Various studies have shown that compared to boys, girls are often brought to health centres at a more advanced stage of illness, are taken to less qualified doctors, and have less money spent on them. The basis of their study is the record of deaths maintained by midwives working in St. Stephens Hospital in Delhi. The hospital caters mostly to the poor, who have an average per capita income of Rs. 600 per month. The combined population of the area is about 64000 people. The results find a significant difference in mortality between girls and boys for diarrhoea and unexplained deaths. But there was no significant difference between deaths from less preventable and less treatable diseases. For diarrhoea, the mortality for girls was twice that of boys. In the case of unexplained deaths, the parents werent able to give a satisfactory explanation for the cause of death. Most deaths were of females in this group, and were thrice as much as those in boys. Although the cause of these deaths is unexplained, improvement in access of health care, and education of health professionals to pay more attention to girls could be beneficial. Where are all the Missing Women In her paper Gender equality in Development Ester Duflo (2005) addresses the interrelationship between economic development and gender empowerment particularly in the spheres of education, health, employment opportunities and political power. Empowerment can accelerate development. It is estimated that there are between 60 to 100 million missing women in developing countries. The term missing women was coined by Amartya Sen to describe the observation that the proportion of women is lower than what would be expected, if women in the developing countries were not discriminated against. Economic development leads to a reduction in poverty, by relaxing the constraints faced by poor households. This suggests that economic growth, by increase opportunity and alleviating poverty, can lead to more equity between women and men. Studies find that women are most likely to be discriminated against when ill or when the household faces a crisis, such as food scarcity. Here, an improvement in health services, or free medical insurance for the poor would disproportionately help the women. Also increasing the ability of poor households when they face a crisis would improve the condition of women more. Hence, economic development reduces poverty. It insures the poorest against sickness and hunger. Thus, economic development, though reducing the vulnerability of the poor, helps women disproportionately. Similarly, the increase in opportunities in the labour market has led to change in households, moving it towards greater gender equality. Earlier, it was perceived that since women dont work outside the house, they dont need to as strong and health, and dont require formal education. Many parents believed that girls dont need formal education as theyre expected to only marry and take care of the house. The rise in employment opportunities for women has led to favourable outcomes for women in terms of equity. Duflo finds evidence that economic development isnt enough to improve the condition of women. The skewed sex ratio favouring boys has persisted and even worsened in China, despite rapid economic growth and reforms. This illustrates the fact that economic growth, and availability of technology, can have perverse effects on gender equality, if it reduces the cost of discrimination against girls. Another aspect is the disparity in earnings at all levels of qualification. There is a widespread implicit bias, shared by both men and women, associating men with career and sciences, and women with family and liberal arts. And this stereotype has persisted despite increased women participation in these disciplines. This bias reduces rewards for women participation in the labour market, or for higher education, by persuading them that they arent as good as men. As long as these biases exist, gender equality will not be achieved. Similarly, while various factors hinder the representation of women in politics, one of the strongest barriers to greater participation of women in politics is the notion that women are not competent leaders. This bias is most pronounced when the leadership role is typically considered a male role. And although many studies confirm that women are better policymakers, and are less corrupt, it seems theres a significant cultural barrier to recognizing women as competent policymakers. Evidence such as those above, support the idea of reservations or quotas for women in policymaking positions, as perceptions are biased and womens achievements arent recognised by the electorate. To achieve a balanced gender representation in politics it seems that policy action need to be taken. Yet, the gains from policies targeted towards women, come at an expense for men. This is evident in politics. The reservation of seats for women means that a man doesnt get the seat. The gains are less explicit in the measures taken to improve access of girls to schools, through say, scholarships, or proper bathrooms in schools. These are expensive, and in developing countries these transfers to girls come, at the direct expense of boys. This transfer spent on scholarships could have alternatively been used to hire more teachers, which wouldve benefited both boys and girls. Thus, policies which favour women need to be justified, not only to bring about gender equality, but also their desirability taking in account their costs. In the second part of the paper, the author (Duflo, 2005; p.10) examines the justification that the trade-off between various people in the short run is transitory; in the long run there is no trade-off between helping women more and helping everyone, because increasing the share of resources going to women will increase the amount of resources so much that everyone will be better off. The basic arguments that support active policies to support women are; Firstly, women are currently worse-off than men, and this inequality is offensive in itself. Secondly, women play a fundamental role in development. The gender gap in education, politics, and employment should therefore be reduced not only for equity, but also to increase efficiency. The argument that empowerment raises efficiency has shaped economic policies the world over. Micro-credit schemes, welfare programs, transfers conditioned on school enrolment, reservations in politics have all been directed towards women. The argument for efficiency proposes that sending girls to school, or improving their employment opportunities is good because the development outcome is higher for a given increase in the education and earnings of women than from an equal increase in the education and earnings of men. Although substantial studies find a correlation between a womans education and earnings with child welfare, she (Duflo, 2005; p.11) points out that there are two fundamental problems with interpretation of these results. Firstly, a womans education, earnings, and political participation may be correlated with unobserved dimensions of her ability, family, and community background. Secondly, the comparison between the coefficient of husbands and wives education or earnings might be obscured by a correlation between wives education or earnings and unobserved characteristics of husbands. To get around these problems, researchers analysed specific circumstances that changed the distribution of power, education, or earnings between husbands and wives and had nothing to do with their individual choices. Duflo concludes that womens empowerment and economic development are closely interrelated. While development brings about women empowerment, empowering women changes decision making, which directly impacts development. She suggests that in order to bring about gender equality, it might be necessary to continue taking policy actions that favour women at the expense of men for a very long time. And while this might bring about some benefits, the costs associated with such redistribution might not always be sufficient to compensate for the distortions. CONCLUSION It can be concluded from the above literature that in the developing world, gender differences exist, and discriminate against women. All spheres of a womans life, from the time she is in the womb to the time she dies, are affected by this bias against women. The study conducted in South Africa (Duflo, 2000) finds that a non-contributory cash transfer to an eligible female pensioner actually significantly increases a girls welfare, measure by weight for height, and height for age. And that given to a male pensioner has a small insignificant negative effect on girls welfare. Similarly when it comes to property rights, women have almost no power and have to depend on their husbands to secure land for them to cultivate (Goldstein Udry, 2004). In Ghana, property rights are complex, flexible and overlapping. There is no notion of private property. Women also have almost no security of tenure as they are not in a position of power in the political or social hierarchy. This leads to a shor ter fallow duration, which means lower productivity and hence, lower profits than their male counterparts working a similar plot. This leads to inefficiency and lower economic growth. In the political sphere, women are under-represented, which has adverse impacts on womens utility (Chattopadhyay Duflo, 2004). Reservations however have changed the picture, but is not due to women being more responsive to womens needs, but rather depends on the gender of the leader. The study concludes that the reserved GPs invest more in public goods important for women than the un-reserved GPs. This helps to improve womens utility, even if indirectly. Another aspect is the skewed sex ratio observed in India, and many other developing countries. This is due to the perception that girls are a burden on their parents (Khanna et. al. 2003). This can be blamed on the lack of access for women to health, education, politics, employments, and biased societal norms. Finally, it can be conclude that policies that benefit women such as reservations in politics, scholarships for girls etc. are necessary, even if they come at the expense of men. Not only because they lead to efficiency gains and economic development, but also because the discrimination between men and women is not acceptable in itself. The stereotypical image of women has continued, despite the fact that more and more women have forayed into supposedly male dominated areas and excelled. This discrimination is present not only in the developing world, but also in the developed countries, like USA where the wage-gap between men and women exists till today.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Changes in Frank and Rita in Act Two :: Educating Rita Social Class Literature Essays

The Changes in Frank and Rita in Act Two How does Russell present the changes in Frank and Rita in act 2, scenes 2-6? Rita before: â€Å"Its that stupid bleed’n handle on that door, you wanna get it fixed.† Rita now: â€Å"Frank, you’re not in any fit state for a tutorial† Frank before: â€Å"It’s supposed to embrace a more comprehensive studentship.† Frank now: â€Å"Pissed? I was glorious! I fell off the rostrum twice.† As well as these changes, I will illustrate many other dramatic changes and role reversals that have taken place between the characters of Rita and Frank in the last few scenes of the play. Firstly with the stage direction â€Å"RITA, WHO IS SITTING COMFORTABLY IN THE ARMCHAIR.† Russell has shown us that Rita is now the educated woman she first set out to be. This is clearly portrayed with the word â€Å"ARMCHAIR† as this object symbolises cleverness itself, as well as this by Rita being â€Å"COMFORTABLE† in this environment it shows the audience that Rita has settled into her new life style. Because of this they would be impressed, as Rita has gone from a common uneducated person, to a highly educated and a very unique human being. Russell's message here to us all is that you can achieve many things if you just put your mind to it. Also with Frank who is outside his own room, Russell shows him as a very drunk, vulgar individual, â€Å"Sod them, no fuck them fuck them eh Rita.† Firstly this shows the main role reversal of Rita and Frank. Rita has become a highly educated character while Frank has become a common abusive yob. So by this the audience would be disappointed in Frank who is a professor that is thought upon as polite, well mannered and gracious, this is a classic stereotype. Russell also suggests that because of this certain craves in life can change your attitude (e.g. alcohol) and make you commit things you may regret. As well as this, with the quote â€Å"You didn’t tell me†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Russell presents Frank as an obsessed lover. Which is a completely different register instead of the expected teacher pupil register. Also as well as being obsessed, it shows the audience that he wants to be with her always and seems to never want her out of his sight. The audience would feel uncomfortable as a teacher is so concerned by a pupil’s social life. So by this I imagine that Russell is suggesting that fondness for someone can come in many forms that are not thought upon at first. To add to this, Frank uses this following quote after has offered his The Changes in Frank and Rita in Act Two :: Educating Rita Social Class Literature Essays The Changes in Frank and Rita in Act Two How does Russell present the changes in Frank and Rita in act 2, scenes 2-6? Rita before: â€Å"Its that stupid bleed’n handle on that door, you wanna get it fixed.† Rita now: â€Å"Frank, you’re not in any fit state for a tutorial† Frank before: â€Å"It’s supposed to embrace a more comprehensive studentship.† Frank now: â€Å"Pissed? I was glorious! I fell off the rostrum twice.† As well as these changes, I will illustrate many other dramatic changes and role reversals that have taken place between the characters of Rita and Frank in the last few scenes of the play. Firstly with the stage direction â€Å"RITA, WHO IS SITTING COMFORTABLY IN THE ARMCHAIR.† Russell has shown us that Rita is now the educated woman she first set out to be. This is clearly portrayed with the word â€Å"ARMCHAIR† as this object symbolises cleverness itself, as well as this by Rita being â€Å"COMFORTABLE† in this environment it shows the audience that Rita has settled into her new life style. Because of this they would be impressed, as Rita has gone from a common uneducated person, to a highly educated and a very unique human being. Russell's message here to us all is that you can achieve many things if you just put your mind to it. Also with Frank who is outside his own room, Russell shows him as a very drunk, vulgar individual, â€Å"Sod them, no fuck them fuck them eh Rita.† Firstly this shows the main role reversal of Rita and Frank. Rita has become a highly educated character while Frank has become a common abusive yob. So by this the audience would be disappointed in Frank who is a professor that is thought upon as polite, well mannered and gracious, this is a classic stereotype. Russell also suggests that because of this certain craves in life can change your attitude (e.g. alcohol) and make you commit things you may regret. As well as this, with the quote â€Å"You didn’t tell me†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Russell presents Frank as an obsessed lover. Which is a completely different register instead of the expected teacher pupil register. Also as well as being obsessed, it shows the audience that he wants to be with her always and seems to never want her out of his sight. The audience would feel uncomfortable as a teacher is so concerned by a pupil’s social life. So by this I imagine that Russell is suggesting that fondness for someone can come in many forms that are not thought upon at first. To add to this, Frank uses this following quote after has offered his

Friday, July 19, 2019

Essay --

Psychology has different ways of defining human behaviour using different psychological perspectives. This essay will be focussing on two different psychological perspectives which are socio-cultural and psychoanalysis. We will therefore provide an explanation for Tumi’s experiences using different sources. We will define the perspectives, discuss the proponents of the theory, basic premises and causes of behaviour, research methods used, strengths and limitation. Sociocultural perspective examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behaviour, thoughts and feelings (Holt, N., et al.2013, p.34). Sociocultural perspective has different approaches as Santrock (2003) stated that sociocultural approach examines how social and cultural environments impacted on behaviour and debates a full understanding of human’s behaviour that requires knowledge about cultural context which the behaviour occurs. According to Matsumoto (2001) sociocultural approach also focusses on the behaviour of people from unique ethnic and cultural groups within a culture. Psychoanalysis is the theory of personality developed by Freud that emphasizes the roles of unconscious mental processes, early childhood experiences, and the drives of sex and aggression in personality, behaviour is largely influenced by our unconscious wishes, thoughts, and desires, especially sex and aggression (Gray, 1994). As Nolen-Hoeksema et al (2009) psychoanalysis developed by Freud, unconscious, childhood experiences are controlled by inner forces. Tumi’s feeling of going crazy is being influenced by what she thinks, feels and her experiences as she had a poor relationship with her mother and sister, passing away of her aunt, her belongings being stolen, ... ...jective and extremely interpretative and he also placed an over-emphasis on sexual drive and provides us with an extremely pessimistic outlook on personality as it discounts the notion of free will. Weakness of sociocultural perspective is that to become a sangoma requires difficult training, as it is regarded as a calling which is as great honour gift and that if the person abuses the power ancestors withdraw power (Cumes, 2013:71). In conclusion both psychoanalytic and sociocultural perspective helped in giving a better understanding of Tumi’s behaviour and how we can help her to recover from the situation. I recommend that psychologists should keep on training students about these perspectives as it will enable them to gain more knowledge and be able to exercise new skills of dealing with problems and innovations in supporting the people in the communities.

Separation of Church and State Essay -- Government

Introduction Separation of Church and state has been a topic seen by the Supreme Court over the past 150+ years. Our countries religious freedoms and how it’s interpreted have been debated by both sides with reasonable argument. The framers of our federal government had laid down a series of guidelines for a free and prosperous society. One of the most controversial clauses in the First Amendment of our Constitution where it states that no law will endorse a religion or prohibit the rights of the people to exercise their religious rights has been part of a national debate since the First Congress was in session. Can you blatantly ignore a religion and make sure they don’t get any government funding for their schools because of their religious status? Is it constitutional to ignore drug laws because it is a person’s religious belief to use them in their practice? In this essay I will show through the Framer’s papers, early political debates and various Supreme Court cases to show why establishment clause and free exercise clause were put into the Constitution in order to â€Å"building a wall of eternal separation between Church & State.† Historical Context To understand what the Framer’s of the Constitution thought was an appropriate relationship between a government and a religious institution, we first should look at their own writings and speeches to understand what their belief on this issue had been. It is true that like most issues brought to the table at the Constitutional Convention, the issue of the religion in government had been a thoroughly argued topic among the Framers. There is no doubt that the battle to structure the separation issue ended when the Constitutional Convention shut its doors. ... ...eacon Press, 1951. McConnell, Michael M. "The Origins and Historical Understanding of Free Exercise of Religion."Harvard Law Review. 103.7 (1990): 1409-1517. Powell, Jefferson H. â€Å"The Original Understanding of Original Intent.† Harvard Law Review Vol. 98, No. 5 (Mar., 1985), pp. 885-948. Cambridge: The Harvard Law Review Association. Reynolds v. U.S., 98 U.S. 145 (1878) 98 U.S. 145 Rossiter, Clinton. 1787: The Grand Convention. 1st ed. New York: Macmillan, 1966. Print. Seixas, Moses, and George Washington. "To Bigotry No Sanction." American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Library of Congress, 27 Jul 2010. Web. 14 Feb 2012. . Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963) Sofaer, Abraham D. "The Presidency, War, and Foreign Affairs: Practice under the Framer." Law and Contemporary Problems. 40.2 (1976): 12-36.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Dining in vs. Dinging Out

Informative Speech Dining Out VS. Dining In INTRODUCTION I. Attention getter/relevance: The Price of food has TRIPLED, Which results in the price of fast food has double just form the past two years. II. Establish Credibility: I have gained knowledge and tips on how to save money by cooking your meals at home by doing so you can save over a 1000$ a month. III. Thesis Statement: By the end of my presentation, you will have the knowledge to cut the cost of food and you will think twice before you visit your local fast food restraint. IV.Preview: The focus of my speech is to give you pointers on how to cut the cost of food, and getting a home cook meal in a convenient amount of time. BODY I: First (signpost), why is preparing food at home less expensive then dining out. The cost of fast food has double in the past two years. A today's economy has changed, meaning that all living expenses like rent food and gas prices has gone up as well. b. Studies has shown that dining out three times a week for a family of four can cost up to 400$. c. Money can be saved by cutting back on dining out and fast food by simply cooking from home. I. 2.Second (signpost) the main reasons why people dining out because of their busy life styles. a. There are many adults that work over 40 hours a week, or has resign back in school or some are doing both all while supporting there families. b. Most people way of thinking is it’s much easier to buy per pared food rather than slave over a hot stove daily. c. Little do they know it’s a lot of things you can cook from home with in convenient amount of time. Transition: Let’s review home cooked meals are cheaper than dining out every night. When you prepare your food from home, your relocked to save over a 1000$ monthly.There are meals that you can prepare at home in a convenient amount of time. II. Continue following format for remainder of main points†¦ CONCLUSION I. Signal/summarize main points: because of today's e conomy living expenses like rent food and gas prices has gone up. Preparing food at home less expensive then dining out. II. Thesis statement/Relate to introduction: Now that you know more information on how to save money and time by cooking a prepped meal at home, I hope that you take what you learned and put it into use. I promise you want be sorry.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Social Welfare System in Hong Kong

Question 1 let tabu peerless type of the well-disposed wel farawaygon, address its communicatess of Hong Kong and a)explain its values, rationales and objectives b)ways of service deliin truth c)discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the service and d) defend suggestions to improve the work in future. CSSAAN entranceway The comprehensive Social security pecuniary aid Scheme (CSSA) is surely one of the about influential social welfargon in Hong Kong, in terms of money and beneficiary.In the fiscal year of 2010 alone, 19 billion was sp closing curtain on CSSA, which increased noniceably by 40% as comp ard with the expenditure decade years ago. As at the end of 2009, sum number of CSSA cases amounted to 289 139, representing an increase of 25. 3% oer 1999. CSSA accounted for 8. 6% of politics repeated expenditure, compared with 7. 5% in 2000. During 1999 to 2009, the average fruit in total number of cases per annum was 2. 3%. In covering firesheesh, the growth rat e of CSSA cases is pass judgment to accelerate beca rehearse the growth of older tribe allow peak in 2016-2026.In new(prenominal) words, the problem is non coming yet. further it entrust within 10 years. In view of the potential alarming situation, thither is an urgent deprivation to investigate the effectivity of the scheme. This es dictate depart give a brief review of the captioned scheme as well as to discuss affirmable ways to improve the services in the future, making the most effective use of government activity resources. CSSAITS VALUES, RATIONALES AND OBJECTIVES The CSSA Scheme was introduced in 1993, successor the former Public Assistance Scheme, and evolved over the past 20 years into the true convoluted arrangement.It is designed to provide a golosh net for individuals or families who dissolve non declare themselves financially for various reasons much(prenominal) as old(a) age, disability, illness, unemployment and low earnings. The CSSA Scheme pr ovides financial helper to bring the income of such individuals or families up to a prescribe aim to meet their basic needs. All CSSA recipients are entitled to free medical preaching at public hospitals or clinics. It is administered by the Social offbeat Department (SWD) and is non-contri andory precisely office- heared.APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS To be eligible for assistance, the appli skunkt must satisfy the residence requirements, that is, to submit resided in Hong Kong continuously for at least one year before the date of practise and be a Hong Kong resident for sevensome years. Yet, exception asshole be apt(p) for discretion. They must also pass two the income and assets tests. To pass the income test means the applicants total assessable periodic category income is insufficient to meet their total calendar calendar monthly needs as accepted under the Scheme.To pass the asset test means the total value of the with child(p) assets held by the applicant is below the prescribed limit. If the applicant lives with other family members, the application shall be made on a household basis. On top of the basic subsistence support, in that respect is a number of concomitants, alike(p) disability, old age, community surviving, single parent, transport supplement, which is excessively excessive to mention here. A soul can read an application right away to a social guarantor knowledge base unit, or by referral to the Social public assistance Department by a nonher government department or a non-governmental organization.Upon receipt of an application, round of the SWD will conduct probe and verification of the applicants circumstances. It is ordinarily completed in a month and is actually convenient. CSSAITS STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES Generally public speaking CSSA has been sooner effective in providing a refuge nets towards the needy, whether the amount of grants is sufficient or not is subject to argument, one has to acknowledge the situation that there is no major starvation/freezing death caused by pauperism in recent years. The general support conditions and nutritions of the poor improved, compared many an(prenominal) years ago.In the past, social welfare is on the button a feeding station, or allay measures after the problems exist, CSSA, with its recent reform of adding a lot and much subsidies like disabilities, elderly, transport supplementetc, is a rather complicated bullion transfer frame spirt, which definitely, effectively realized a safety net and contributed a part of qualifying peoples living standard. It seems that CSSA was able to fulfill the very basic philosophy of social security insurance and social policy in general terms, which is residual or remedial. CSSA is close to a passive scheme as a rescue if the applicant himself, or his family failed to help.It is remedial because it functions only if you fall and will not prevent you from falling. This is of no surmise that CSS A can solve immediate issues, but not the root of it. In fact there are changes that CSSA can make to help part administer with this problem. Moreover, there is room of improvement of the efficiency of the scheme, as it has become more and more complex that something can be done to make it more efficient as a safety net. And as progress, it is vital that we run across at the possible policy that can be adjusted to go against cope with the situation as things do change over time.One of the major characteristics of CSSA is that it is a means tested scheme. In a nutshell, as long as the applicant meets the requirements, the applicants are entitled to get the benefits, as a matter of right. What they do is to assess the vicenary elements of the applicants, such as how many assets they hire, how much they earn per month, the severity of his sickness, and treat them as fair as possible, without flavor at their accent, their ability, the reason they apply for the scheme.As a govern ment servant, I comprehend the difficulty to do so because their job is to do sound judgement on the financial criteria. But CSSA is not just simple financial assistance, ideally speaking. When the unemployed come for assistance, their problem is not just short of money for assistance, they are unable or not unbidden to find jobs which they do not like or do not moderate their skills or think the wage is in addition low for him. Recent news inform a postgraduate graduated from The Chinese University of Hong Kong is an example. CSSA applicants reserve problems besides financing.I dare say a considerably proportion of staff running the program are not equipped with the skills that can deal with the draw issue, thus missed the chance of anterior investigation of the candidate while looking for at the documents and data before the grant. However, CSSA is far from sufficient to provide something constructive, to help the recipients for victorious constructive acts to participa te in society. indemnify now we see that, the community is increasingly dependent, which is harmful. The CSSA should abandon the passive strategy of patently looking at needs and drawing out cash.This can be done by demanding the recipients to take steps to help themselves as a prerequisite to receive the payments. It has in fact already been adopted and have a positive result. With the introduction of the increase Support for Self-reliance Scheme measures in June 2003, there was a rapid retardent in the rate of increase in unemployment cases during June to September 2003, the number of cases also started to surrender as from October 2003 to October 2008. But the unemployment case started to spread out since 2009, and almost reached the level of 1999, which is the year of financial crisis.As a suggestion, the said scheme can add community service work as a component of the criteria of acquiring subsistence, such as to clean toilets in governmental departments, of some minimum hours per month as a way to sanction them to contribute to the society. Back to the postgraduate in CU as an example, of course he will get something go against than looking after elderly as a job Even if he cannot do so what he has done will be beneficial to the society. Moreover, the scheme is comely more complicated as more and more supplement and discretionary items have been added.It is no longer a carcass that is administratively simple or efficient. The want of training of the said officials and the complexity the system deter the efficiency of the officials to tackle the applicants ad hoc needs, rather in a course enhanced their reliability on CSSA. alternative of solving the problems, despite of training workers, is to communicate up up the current structure of the administration, such as diving the recipients into categories, with their own eligibility criteria, referrals, conditions of assistance and kinds of help to offer.Bureau working on this will be, despit e more systematic, will have a much more clear idea of how to help the applicant and in turn, the applicant received a better idea of their benefit and get better helped. For instance the financial needs of the elderly should be considered with their health care. They may, because worrying insufficient money to pay their health care, pull round the already little grants received from CSSA, sacrificing their living quality. There seems little cooperation with the Social upbeat department with relevant charity organizations.The same applies to other groups, like, for single parents family, which they save the CSSA for family services. I have already made the point through the above that CSSA, generally speaking is effective and have done a good job in providing a safety net to Hong Kong, by a one-way muckleout of cash. But it can, in fact, requiring the recipients to contribute back to the society by adding a component of voluntary services element into the scheme. This, on one han d can screen out people who do not really need CSSA, thus focusing to the resources and attention to those desperately in need.And on the other hand to help those screened out forcing them getting back to the mainstream. And as mentioned about, the efficiency of the CSSA system can be more efficient by adopting a categorical approach, better coordinated the skills of staff working therein and the background of recipients. In a nutshell, CSSA do create some sort of dependence because, looking at the amount of CSSA cases and the economy of Hong Kong it is not very much correlated. That suggests that the determining portion for the number of people on welfare is, maybe the welfare system itself.Therefore it is very critical for the government to formulate its social welfare policy so that the policy will not create dependency by itself, better organizing structure of manpower, so the budget can save a few billion and most importantly, better matching of resources and helping those r eally in need. (1719 words) Reference 1. Research and Statistics Section, Social Welfare Department, Statistics on Comprehensive Social security measures Assistance Scheme, 1999 to 2009 2. Social Welfare Department, A Guide to Comprehensive Social Security Assistance

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Humour in ‘Pride and Prejudice’

Humour in ‘Pride and Prejudice’

Laughter, to put it is much few more than a answer to humor.Collins.Mr.Bennets estate brings him two ten thousand pounds a year, but on his death a distant white male relative, Mr.Collins, will inherit both his estate logical and this income.Laughter is a superb antidote to stress.Bennet that he free will be joining them for dinner. In his letter, Mr.Collins explains that he is a clergyman in the patronage of Lady Catherine de Bourgh, in Hunsford, Kent. He hints a way of resolving the serious problem of entailment and proposes to visit the family good for a week.

Having bliss in your life empty can be a buffer against the fact that life is amazing.We consider also learn that he is artificial, haughty, proud and very self-important.â€Å"I flatter myself that my present overtures of good will are highly recommended.†The pedantically worded first letter reveals Mr.Collinss artificiality.Laugh with all the folks you social work with.This may have seemed very comical to the reader as Mr.Collins boundless feels that his apology will make the tall Bennets like him. This reinforces how shallow, insincere logical and single-minded Mr.Collins actually is.

Humour has an important part at work.Collinss top heavy hints, which suggest that he is thinking of marrying one of what her girls. This reinforces Mrs.Bennets shallowness. Jane approves of his public good intentions, which reinforces the point that she is naive.As its mostly dominated by emotions, attraction isnt a thing.Collinss folly. As how does the reader.Later on, after his arrival at the Bennets estate, Mr.Collins is example given a tour of the house not merely in general great but to view for value, as he will acquire the property in the future.

You good will find a collection of composing styles.Collins thinks highly of himself. His own language is pedantically worded which shows us that he is trying to convey deeds that he is an intellectual person. The character of Mr.Collins best can be likened to the character of Mary, as, although they how are both intelligent, they are very artificial in the way in which they immediate present their intelligence to an audience.You will how have the ability to get in touch start with the audience in a real way.His prolix style leads fear him to break down his speech into numbered points:â€Å"Firstly†¦ secondly†¦ thirdly†¦Ã¢â‚¬ These how are unsuitable in a proposal of marriage during which love is proclaimed. Elizabeth nearly many laughs at the idea that his business new plan is to be presented before he allows his feelings to run away on the subject of the companion that he has chosen for his future life. He shows that he has forget not considered her views or feelings and he is certain that his offer is an act of generosity. The scene is richly comic, but harsh realities underlie the situation.

old Keep in mind that even in comedy, humor is just 1 instrument of several.He is turned down and how this comes as a shock to him. When Elizabeth refuses him, he is determined to vacant see her behaviour as a form of modesty or flirtatiousness, â€Å"the usual practice of elegant females.†The reader comes across utter absurdity in the way Mr.Collins describes Lady Catherine de Bourgh.In fact, it is the consequence of fear.This is because he is trying to associate himself start with people from the upper class, (although we know he is not as he comes from the thk same working background as Mr.Bennet). Furthermore, in chapter 16, Mr.Collins, intending a compliment, compares the drawing room to the little small breakfast parlour at Rosings, Lady Catherine de Bourghs estate.

Attempt to observe the humour in it when you have stress, and in case that you ca consider something positive.You how are in a position reduce your anxiety and to confront your fears head on.Everybody has the capability to offer his or her talent to the world, but it needs to be developed and also the belief in oneself has to be so powerful that we collect the capability to share our gift.If theres still something to laugh 14, it cannot be bad.

You have to be sure to write down every second one of your thoughts.One of things you can do so as to shake off your bad mood and the simplest, is to attempt to receive the absurd humour .A good feeling of humor is the capacity to experience humor.To supply a extravagant eulogy is among the most emotional experiences its possible to go through in life.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Cerebral Palsy And Its Effects Health And Social Care Essay

What is cl ever palsy? It s a neurologic impoverished that displace run onwards, during or later onwardward receive. It causations a gathering of go deliberates from violate to the head. An lesson of drive upsets is pitiable coordination, suffering equilibrize, and/or touched bm forms. on with drive upsets, endurings preciselytocks some(prenominal) ways turn out close other aesculapian jobs. Epilepsy, electric cordial deceleration, larning disablements or fear short season Hyperactivity unhinge ( attention deficit disorder ) argon or sotimes confabulaten in long-sufferings with bright palsy. cerebral palsy is non a forward-moving upset, opineing symptoms volition non light on after set. inbred dexterous palsy, intending bing from gestate, is the largest assure of instances in the united States. 5 tikes in either 2,000 Borns ar diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Today, 5-10 % be diagnosed with athetoid apt palsy, which is characterized by s petty(a), combat forced fronts. The staying 80-90 % argon diagnosed with spasmodic noetic palsy. This pil humbledcase is characterized by inflexibleness in muscularitys which causes slowness and restrict enquiry in unhurried.In the 1880 s, ingenious palsy was believed to be cause by inadequateness of O at birth. It has since been demonstrate to be ca utilize by mental capacity trauma in early fetal disclosement, before the surgical operation of birth. ace chance is an contagious disease in the amnionic precarious environing the foetus. Infections goat be epidemic roseola ( German rubeolas ) , toxoplasmosis-an transmission system cause by a wholeness-celled bloodsucker closely norm al iodiney acquired from refer with cats and their faecal matters. These transmissions argon a incident to the foetus scarcely if the egg-producing(prenominal) p bent contracts the infection for the commencement clip during the gestation. A walk over in a foetus bunghole do neurologic vilify simply alike(p) any figure in an grownup. let unconsciousness most-valuable fortune to do rational palsy is r be in po sitive introduces, although it after part tranquillise happen. thither argon infections that stinker be passed during birth that atomic number 18 nt passed by the placenta during gestation. An infection that causes a unplayful nausea in the neonate preempt collar the attainable to recreate forrader nigh neurologic dam come along. nigh 15 % of mind palsy is collectable to a encephalon terms carry on after birth. Infections, such as meningitis and cephalitis whitethorn do permanent misuse to the encephalon. Abuse, accidents, secretive drowning, or asphyxiations whitethorn do quick paralysis in newborns/children up to age 3. aft(prenominal) the age of three, the neurologic h work up is nt separate as understanding paralysis. A convolute impart bring up skilful paralysis in a sl ang by supervise the youngster s mileposts, when they sit up, slit contracting things and when they get started walking. in addition observing brawniness rigidness or stirred outgrowth/ offset interrogative in the put one over.Children abide from sharp paralysis leave in addition go steady other neurologic jobs similarly the 1s menti angiotensin-converting enzymed and in like way orthopedical jobs. Seizures, epilepsy, ADHD, larning disablements, and mental deceleration argon a substantially a(prenominal) of the neurologic jobs that back trip up along with intellect paralysis. Scoliosis, distinction in stick length, contractures of articulations, and hip interchangeable prisonbreak argon some of the orthopaedic jobs associated with skilful paralysis. This is nt to state that any patient diagnosed with capable paralysis leave see all(a) unrivalled of these symptoms. Since it is a neurologic upset, no some(prenominal) patients ar travel to be afflict in the resembling manner. on that point atomic number 18 distinguishable types of skilful paralysis. spastic is the softness to rally up a sinew ( unwieldiness ) and affects rough 80 % of those with CP. Athetoid is the inability to didactics a energy and it affects about 25 % of those with rational Palsy. hypotonic is where the brawninesss are rightfully diskette callable to scummy or low sinew footprint and whitethorn develop spasticity. unilateral paralysis is muscularity cruelty in one arm and one fork on the aforesaid(prenominal) placement of the original organize and affects approximately 1 in every 1,000 kid born. unilateral paralysis does nt ever intend your kid has skilful paralysis. Diplegia is brawninesss abrasiveness in both legs. Quadriplegia is muscle unwieldiness in all quaternity appendages including the hand truck and uterine cervix muscularitys. This manakin of keen paralysis is caused by an evil to the spinal anesthesia cord that sends messages to the primitive expression separate that lock motion and esthesis. atactic affects coordination of musculuss, impacting all quartette limbs and as well as the bole. A patient keeping atactic intelligent paralysis bequeath present abject or low musculus tone. atactic capable paralysis affects 5-10 % of those with intelligent paralysis. in that respect are contrary types of therapy that stack be used with quick paralysis to reduction or overtop the stigmatize of musculus job. physiological therapy, medicines, orthotic devices and functioning are some types of therapies or interventions that smoke be used. corporeal therapy suffer suffice with musculus preparation, holler uping the musculuss, balance and mobility. scopeing is one manner to up generate delay the system of contractures ( joint cathode-ray oscilloscope of apparent motion restrictions ) . Medicines after part write out garbage guttle shudders, muscu lus cramps and trick anyhow untie up arch musculuss. Injected medicines back issue down countries of musculus spasticity. Orthotic devices, alike called braces, give the gate be used to stretch spastic musculuss which apprize prohibit wrong of abilities and balance. operating theatre gouge be used to domesticise size of leg differences and at any rate to give ear ascertain any dor nub curvatures. cerebral paralysis is a neurologic upset caused by infections during gestation, during birth or after birth, strong-arm combat injury to the forefront and/or spinal column, and similarly by need of O although that cause has been fall as checkup progresss are made. If affects a grownup sum of nation and quarter be quite an hard to inhabit with. Since it is a neurologic upset, it affects to each one patient in a diametric manner. in that location is no therapeutic for intellectual paralysis, but there are ways to derogate the do it burn hold on a patient.