Thursday, October 31, 2019

Suggestions of Crisis Communication for the Chinese Government Literature review

Suggestions of Crisis Communication for the Chinese Government - Literature review Example In short, a threat, surprise, unpredictability, short duration of response and inevitability define crises. Among all crises, damages, reputation and image are of key concern to any leader and organization during the crisis and post crisis. Arnold (2008) argues that reputational damage is an emergent danger during any crisis. Chen (2008) cites image as a central concept to the disciplines of human relations, fundamental to organizations (such as, government bodies, corporations, nonprofit groups and government institutions) as well as individuals. When a crisis erupts, the organization’s image is damaged and its capacity to manage the crisis qualities are put to test (Becker 2011). Coombs (2012) argues that crisis management is aimed at reducing or warding off financial and reputational risks by espousing the development of policies to help in the handling communication crises. A bank for crisis management policies seeks to help reduce potential negative outcomes ascribed to emergent situations and, thereby, protect institutions, stake holders and the industry from damage, According to Coombs (2012), an active crisis management platform originates from a universal â€Å"range of crisis communication approaches† comprising of a variety of activities from â€Å"denial to accommodation†. Defensive approaches assert that no disaster exists, or try to evade accountabilities for the crisis, through comprise, denial, excuses, justifications and attacks targeted at the accuser.

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Use appropriate chemical tests Essay Example for Free

Use appropriate chemical tests Essay P5 Use appropriate chemical tests to identify different dietary nutrients Minerals Biochemical test Positive results Why are they needed and the implications without them Starch The easiest way to test for starch is by adding an Iodine or potassium iodide solution. This is commonly used on bread. The iodine or potassium iodide solution will colour of the bread from brown to black. Starch influences the speed at which glucose is digested in the body. Starch converts into sugar and provides cells with energy. However if the cells do not require that energy, it is stored and used at a later time. Excess amounts of starch would turn into fat. Without a healthy supply of starch people would get tired and sluggish, due to the lack of energy in their body. Digestive difficulties, heart disease and kidney stones can also result from a lack of starch. Sugars (excluding sucrose) By adding Benedict’s solution, the substance being tested would need to be placed in a water bath and heated at 80Â °C in order to find out whether or not a sugar is present. If a sugar is found, the colour will change from blue to yellow/red. Sugar is used to fuel the human body. They do this by flowing into the bloodstream at a slower absorption rate which is healthy in the body. Without sugar people can become hypoglycemic which results in low energy levels and fainting. Sucrose sugar To test for sucrose the substance would need to be heated with dilute hydrochloric acid. This is so that that it can hydrolyse the sucrose to make glucose and fructose. When the colour changes from blue to green/yellow/red after hydrolysis, the Benedict’s test will be positive. This means that a sucrose sugar will be present. Sucrose is used in the body to make glucose. This process occurs in the liver where the sucrose is then split by hydrolysis. Like sugar they are used to provide energy to the cells. Without sucrose there could be a lower amount of glucose made. This can result in tiredness and potentially fainting. Lipids Ethanol is used to check for any lipids found in food. Once the ethanol is added, it would need to be shaken to reduce any fats. Once that process has finished the ethanol would need to poured into a test tube containing water. A white emulsion of fats should be present on top of the water. Lipids regulate the amount of fats in the body. These fats are then used as energy. Lipids also provide essential vitamins, regulate hormones and enzymes and protect the body. Without lipids all those functions would be reduced. Cell function and formation would be limited with a notable dip in energy also occurring. Absorption of nutrients would also be reduced as lipids regulate vitamin A, D, E and K in the body. Protein Add Biuret reagents of dilute sodium hydroxide on the substance. This is then followed by a dilute copper sulphate reagent. A colour change will occur is a lipid is present and the colour will change from blue to lilac or purple. Protein is essential in muscle development as it rebuilds and repairs them. Protein also manufactures antibodies which fight and prevent infection. A lack of protein would result in hair loss, slowness up healing and general weakness and lack of energy. Vitamin C DCPIP solution is added to the food substance being tested. If the blue colour of the DCPIP disappears then the food contains vitamin C. Vitamin C is needed for the production of protein collagen which help support body tissues. It also acts as a detoxifier as well as helping maintain blood vessel structure. Vitamin C deficiency would result in muscle and joint pains, easy bruising and tiredness. Gums may also start bleeding and swelling. Vitamins and Minerals A clean nichrome wire would need to be dipped in nitric acid and then placed on a Bunsen burner. The burner would need to be on its maximum heat setting and when there is no colour of the flame the nichrome wire has been removed of any contaminants. The wire would then need to be dipped in the food that it is being test. It is then placed on the Bunsen burner. The colours made are due to the minerals present in the food. The presence of potassium will produce a lilac flame. Calcium is present if the flame produces a red colour. If the flame is orange or yellow then sodium is present. Vitamins and minerals are split into a wide variety of beneficial substances. They ensure the body is functioning well. A deficiency in any of these would result in unhealthy development and poor cell function. Reference http://www. pearsonschoolsandfecolleges. co. uk/Secondary/Science/BTECAppliedScience/BTECLevel3NationalAppliedScience/Samples/StudentBook/BTECLevel3NationalAppliedScienceStudentBookUnit11. pdf http://www. ehow. com/how-does_4728406_sugar-affect-human-body. html#ixzz2K7KIoTsV http://www. ehow. com/about_4571150_does-vitamin-c-do-body. html#ixzz2K7QKUAsS. Read more:Â  Test for Carbohydrates

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Gherkin and Pomegranate Cultivation

Gherkin and Pomegranate Cultivation Abstract Horticulture is an important component of agriculture accounting for a very significant share in the Indian economy. Rising consumer income and changing lifestyles are creating bigger markets for high-value horticultural products in India as well as throughout the world. Among these, the most important high-value export products are fruits and vegetables. This study was conducted to analyze the comparative advantage and competitiveness of pomegranate and gherkin which are the important foreign exchange earner among fruit and vegetable crops exported from India. The primary data was collected from Tumkur and Bijapur district of Karnataka, India and secondary data was collected from concerned government institutions, APEDA and also from exporters of fruits and vegetables. The Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) was selected as the analytical tool to analyse the export competitiveness, comparative advantage, and the degree of government interventions in the production and export of gherkin and pomegranate. The policy distortions were measured through indicators of PAM. Garret ranking technique was used to analyse the constraints in the production and export of the selected crops. EPC of Gherkin (0.5) and pomegranate (0.45) values which found to be less than one indicates that producers are not protected through policy interventions. Whereas DRC (0.27 0.28) and PCR (0.43 0.59) values of Gherkin and Pomegranate respectively shows positive, social as well as private profit which indicates that, India has a competitive and comparative advantage in their production. The result for Garret ranking in case of gherkin shows that skilled labour and lack of superior quality are the major constraints in production and export of gherkin respectively. In case of pomegranate non availability of skilled labour, high incidence of pest and diseases, lack of transportation facilities, high residual effect of pesticide are the major constrain in production and export. The overall result shows that the cultivation as well as export of gherkin and pomegranate is economically profitable and efficient. Key Words: Gherkin, Pomegranate, PAM, EPC and DRC List of Acronyms Variable Definition APEDA Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority CIF Cost Insurance and Freight Crores 10 million DRC Domestic Resource Cost EPC Effective Protection Coefficient EU European Union FAOSTAT Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics FOB Free On Border FYM Farm Yard Manure ha Hectares HEIA Horticulture Export Improvement Association kg Kilogram MHA Million Hectare MT Million Tons NHB National Horticulture Board NPCI Nominal Protection Coefficient on Inputs NPCO Nominal Protection Coefficient on Outputs NPV Net Present Value PAM Policy Analysis Matrix PCR Private Cost Ratio INR Indian Rupees UAE United Arab Emirates UK United Kingdom UNCOMTRADE United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics UNFAO United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization USA United States of America 1. Introduction 1.1 Background Indian agriculture is vested with the herculean responsibility of feeding over more than one billion people. Out of total, 72% of Indias population live in rural areas, further three-fourth of the rural populations depend on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihoods. The present growth in agriculture in India is hassle with problems most importantly, agricultural growth slowed down to 2.1% between 1998-99 and 2004-05. It is largely due to a decline in the food grain sector that grew at merely 0.6%. Given the high dependence of the poor on agriculture, the stagnation in this sector is currently threatening to stall poverty reduction in India (Reddy, 2007). Given the present scenario, the immediate question to be addressed is how agricultural growth can be accelerated. The question can be answered through by diversifying the consumption pattern towards high value agricultural commodities in general and high value horticultural products in particular such as fruits and vegetables. In recent years there has been a great deal of interest among policymakers and trade analysts in the role of horticultural products as a principle means of agricultural diversification and foreign exchange earnings in developing countries. Horticultural products have high income elasticity of demand as income goes up the demand raises rapidly. It grows especially in middle and high income developing countries. As people are more cautious on health and nutrition, there is a paradigm shift from high fat, high cholesterol foods such as meat and live stock products to low fat and low cholesterol foods such as fruits and vegetables. As a result, the world has change d its attention towards high value agricultural products. Hence, it is crucial to be competitive in the world market to reap the potential gains of increased and growing world demand for horticultural products such as fruits and vegetables. Thus, the purpose of the present study attempts to evaluate the consequences of international trade and competitiveness of Indian horticulture with special reference to pomegranate and gherkin crops. In the recent past, these two crops got high export potential and earned good foreign exchange. 1.2 Studies on export of fruits and vegetables There are many studies related to export of horticultural crops especially fruits and vegetables from India. Chiniwar (2009) explained the numerous opportunities and challenges of the horticulture sector and observed that there is a tremendous potential for Indian pomegranates in the global market. He examined the growth of pomegranate exports from India. The study revealed that the growth of pomegranate exports from India is moderate in comparision to the potential for its exports. Tamanna et al. (1999) examined the export potential of selected fruits from India by using Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC). The results indicate that the exports of Indian fruits are highly competitive in the world market. Nalini et al. (2008) observed that India has made tremendous progress in the export of cucumber and gherkin products during the past 15 years (1990-2005). The export has increased by about 129 times with an impressive annual compound growth rate of 37.46 percent, as against only 4. 38 percent in the world market. An increasing and high value of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and a positive and increasing value for Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) have indicated high potential for their export. One percent increase in volume of international trade in cucumber and gherkin may increase the demand from India by 5.96 percent. This indicates that India is highly competitive in the export of cucumber and gherkin. It has ample scope to further increase its export. Gulati et al. (1994) analyzed the export competitiveness of selected agricultural commodities and identified the constraints in the export of fresh fruits, vegetables, processed fruits and vegetables. The above studies are related to export performance, growth, and constraints of fruits and vegetables. Most of these studies focused on aspects pertaining to export of fruits and vegetables. There are no studies on export policy especially related to efficiency and comparative advantage in world market. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyze the export competitiveness of pomegranate and gherkin by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM). The study has a high scope because competitiveness has become a key issue in the international market for export development of fruits and vegetables. 1.3 Research objectives In the present study, the export competitiveness of high value horticultural crops of India is analyzed. To be very precise, the study analyzes the competitiveness of gherkin and pomegranate in the world market. It also compares the advantages and constraints in the export of these crops with the following objectives and proposed hypothesis, which will be tested based on the results and conclusion. Specific objectives To assess the export competitiveness of Gherkin and Pomegranate To examine the production and export constraints of Gherkin and Pomegranate Hypothesis Export of gherkin and pomegranate are competitive in international markets 1.4 Structure of the thesis The study contains the results of the analysis of export competitiveness of horticultural crops in India. In the present study, opportunities are analyzed, constraints in production and export of gherkins and pomegranates from India. We further analyze the competitiveness and comparative advantage of these two crops in international market. The detailed information of this analysis is discussed in the following sections of the study. The first section of the thesis gives us an introduction and background on the nature of the problem, facts on the dynamics and underlying causes diversifying the consumption pattern of high value horticultural commodities. Further, a brief overview of existing studies on Indian agricultural and horticultural growth, export performance, and constraints will be discussed. The research question is broken down into specific objectives and a possible hypothesis has been put forth. The second section of the thesis will give a general overview of fruit and vegetable scenario in the world as well as in India. The section also explains the importance of selected fruit and vegetable by considering production, export and foreign exchange earnings which will help us to understand the export competitiveness of these crops from India. The third section deals with methodological framework which deals with the concepts and competitiveness of high value horticultural crops from India focusing on the application of PAM model for the study. In the same chapter, the current literature and outline of the major definitions for competitiveness and comparative advantage are studied. The above proposed model will be used as a tool to address the research objectives followed by data description. Fourth section highlights the findings of the research from the proposed model using collected information on pomegranate and gherkin cultivation, and their export. Finally, the proposed hypothesis is tested and the results inferred. The final section summarizes the whole research findings and provides meaningful policy implications. 2. Scenario of fruits and vegetables in India and the world 2.1 World scenario of fruits and vegetables 2.1.1 High value agricultural production Rising consumer income and changing lifestyles are creating bigger markets for high value agricultural products throughout the world. Among these, the most important high value export sector is horticulture, especially fruits and vegetables. The growing markets for these products present an opportunity for the farmers of developing countries to diversify their production out of staple grains and raise their income. Annual growth rates on the order of 8 to 10 percent in high value agricultural products is promising development (Fig.1), as the production, processing and marketing of these products create a lot of needed employment in rural areas. The rapid growth in high value exports has been part of fundamental and broad reaching trend towards globalization of the agro food system. Dietary changes, trade reform and technical changes in the food industry have contributed to the growth of high value agriculture and trade (World Bank, 2008). 2.1.2 World production of fruit and vegetables The production of fruit and vegetables all over the world grew by 30 percent between 1980 to 1990 and by 56 percent between 1990 to 2003. Much of this growth occurred in China where production grew up by 134 percent in 1980 and climbed to 200 percent by 1990 (UNFAO 2003). At present the world production of fruits and vegetables reached to 512 MT and 946.7MT respectively (Table 1 5). Vegetables: China is currently the worlds largest producer of vegetables, with the production 448.9 MT with an area of 23.9 MHA (47%) (Table 1), whereas India is in the 2nd position with the production of 125.8 MT with an area of 7.8 MHA (13%) followed by USA (4%), Turkey (3%) etc (Indian Horticulture Database, 2008) (Fig.2). Among the vegetable crops gherkin is considered for the study as it is one of the most important vegetable all over the world. Table 2 shows the international production of cucumber and gherkin from different parts of the world during 2007-08. China, Turkey, Iran, Russia and USA are the world largest producers of cucumber and gherkin (Table 3), whereas India position in the production is 34th but it reached 1st (Table 3) and 55th (Table 4) position in export of provisionally preserved and fresh cucumber gherkin respectively. Table 1 Major vegetables producing countries in the world (2007-08) Country Area(000 ha) Production(000 MT) Productivity(MT/ha) China 23936 448983 19 India 7803 125887 16 USA 1333 38075 29 Turkey 996 24454 25 Russia 970 16516 17 Egypt 598 16041 27 Iran 641 15993 25 Italy 528 13587 26 Spain 379 12676 33 Japan 433 11938 28 Others 16957 222625 13 Total 54573 946774 Source: Indian Horticulture Database (2008) Table 2 International production of cucumber and gherkin (2007-08) Country Production (MT) Share (%) China 28062000 62.9 Turkey 1875919 4.21 Iran, Islamic republic 1720000 3.86 Russian federation 1410000 3.16 USA 920000 2.06 Ukraine 775000 1.74 Japan 634000 1.42 Egypt 615000 1.38 Indonesia 600000 1.34 Spain 510000 1.14 Mexico 500000 1.12 Poland 492000 1.10 Iraq 480000 1.08 Netherland 445000 1.00 India 120000 0.27 Others 5452024 12.22 World 44610943 100 Source: Author, FAO (2008) Table 3 Major exporting countries of fresh cucumber and gherkin (2007) Country Value (USD) Share (%) Spain 557088 30.13 Mexico 437369 23.65 Netherland 419824 22.70 Canada 81707 4.42 Germany 44437 2.40 Turkey 40300 2.18 Greece 38920 2.10 Iran 27768 1.50 Belgium 25361 1.37 USA 16313 0.88 India 235 0.01 Others 159815 8.64 World 1849137 Source: Data from Agricultural and Processed food products Export development Authority (APEDA), India. Table 4 Major exporting countries of preserved cucumber and gherkin Country Value (USD) Share (%) India 33476 49.39 China 16754 24.72 Turkey 4193 6.19 Netherlands 3397 5.01 Belgium 2670 3.94 Vietnam 40300 2.11 Sri Lanka 1003 1.48 Germany 925 1.37 Spain 596 0.88 USA 992 0.87 World 65040 Source: U.N COMTRADE (2007) Fruits: World fruit production has steadily risen for the past four years (see Appendix 3 ). Table 5 shows the largest fresh fruit producers from different countries during 2007-08. China is the worlds largest fruit producer, producing 19 percent of the world fruits. India ranks second in the list of world producer accounting 12 percent of the worlds production followed by Brazil, where 7 percent of the worlds fruit was grown. (Figure 3) As production is increasing in China at alarming rate compare to other top producing countries. Production growth almost averaged 6 percent per year in China, while production growth in India averaged 2.73 percent per year. The EU experienced the lower annual growth rate of 0.89 percent. Whereas, the production in USA and Brazil has been relatively constant over the period, with average annual growth rates of 0.61 percent for the former and 0.34 percent for the later. Other countries Mexico, South Africa and Chile have experienced slightly higher av erage annual production growth rates of 2.12, 2.56 and 1.3 percent respectively over the same period (FAOSTAT 2008). Among all fruits pomegranate is considered for the present study. Figure 4 shows India is the world largest producer of pomegranate with 900 MT (36%) followed by Iran (31%), Iraq (3%), USA (4%) etc. Over the years Indias export rate for pomegranate has grown steadily to worth of INR0.61 million (US$13741) in 2007-08 with the share of 1.2 percent (Table 6). Table 5 Major fruit producing countries in the world (2007-08) Country Area(000 ha) Production(000 MT) Productivity(MT/ha) China 9587 94418 10 India 5775 63503 11 Brazil 1777 36818 21 USA 1168 24962 21 Italy 1246 17891 14 Spain 1835 15293 8 Mexico 1100 15041 14 Turkey 1049 12390 12 Iran 1256 12102 10 Indonesia 846 11615 14 Others 22841 208036 9 Total 48481 512070 Source: FAO Indian Horticulture Database (2008) Table 6 Pomegranate export from different parts of the world (2007) Country Value (USD) Share (%) Thailand 172781 15.06 Spain 138911 12.11 Vietnam 84532 7.37 Mexico 67739 5.91 Netherlands 63858 5.57 Madagascar 53822 4.69 Israel 45219 3.94 Uzbekistan 44128 3.85 Colombia 40459 3.53 Azerbaijan 37977 3.31 France 36975 3.22 Germany 17750 1.55 India 13741 1.20 Others 309565 27.45 World 1127457 100 Source: Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), India 2.2 Scenario of fruits and vegetables in India. Horticulture is an important component of agriculture accounting for a very significant share in the Indian economy. It is identified as one of the potential sector for harnessing Indias competitive advantage in international trade. Further it prepares India to achieve an overall trade target of 1% or more in the share of world trade. Meanwhile, making the country self-sufficient in the last few decades, horticulture has played a very significant role in earning foreign exchange through export. Horticultural crops cover approximately 8.5 percent of total cropped area (20 MHA) (Table 7) with annual production of 207 MT, and productivity of 10.3 MT per hectare during the year 2007-08 (FAO Indian Horticulture Database 2008). Among the horticultural crops fruits and vegetables play an important role, whereas exports of fruits and vegetables have increased over the years (Table 8). During 2004-05 export of fruits and vegetables was INR 13637.13 million as against INR 24116.57 million during 2006-07 (APEDA, 2008) Table 7 Area, production and productivity of horticultural crops in India Year Area (MHA) Production (MT) Productivity (MT/ha) ) 2001-02 16.6 145.8 8.8 2002-03 16.3 144.4 8.9 2003-04 19.2 153.3 21 2004-05 21.1 170.8 8.1 2005-06 18.7 182.8 9.8 2006-07 19.4 191.8 9.9 2007-08 20.1 207.0 10.3 Source: FAO Indian Horticulture Database (2008) Table 8 Export of horticultural produce in India Products 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Floriculture seeds 34496 2871 42659 3922 50048 7713 Fresh Fruits vegetables 1296530 13637 1465040 16587 1983873 24117 Processed fruits vegetables 325293 9614 501826 13595 549949 17316 Total 1656319 261227 2009525 341051 258387 491459 Source: APEDA, India Note: Qty: MT, value : Million INR Vegetables: In vegetable production, India is next to China with a production of 125.8 million tonnes from 7.8 million hectares with a share of 13 percent in relation to world production (Table 9). The per capital consumption of vegetables is 120 grams per day (APEDA 2009). In case of Fresh vegetable Indias export has been increased from INR 433.14 Crore in 2006-07 to Rs 489.49 Crore in 2007-08. Major Export Destinations of these vegetables are UAE, UK, Nepal, and Saudi Arabia. (APEDA, 2009) Table 9 Area, production and productivity of vegetable crops in India Year Area (MHA) Production (MT) Productivity (MT/ha) ) 2001-02 6156 88622 14.4 2002-03 6092 84815 13.9 2003-04 6082 88334 14.5 2004-05 6744 101246 15.0 2005-06 7213 111399 15.4 2006-07 7584 115011 15.2 2007-08 7803 125887 16.1 Source: FAO Indian Horticulture Database (2008) Among all vegetables gherkin is considered for the present study due to following reasons. Indias export of gherkin has been steadily increased since 1997-98. It accounts for 24,490 tonnes of gherkins having an export potential of INR 50.27 crore as against 35,242 tonnes worth of INR 69.86 crore in 1999-2000 (Venkatesh, 2003). In recent year gherkin export has been increased to 61.5 million tonnes with a trade value of INR1465.5 million during 2007-08 (UNFAO Export Data, 2009). 2.2.1 Production and export importance of gherkin in India Gherkin crop is being selected for the present study. It is regarded as HEIA crop especially a hybrid crop. Gherkin cultivation and processing started in India in the early 90s and presently cultivated over 19,500 acres in the three southern states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Although gherkin can grow virtually in any part of the country, the ideal conditions required for growth prevail in these three states where the growing season extends throughout the year. It requires adequate water and temperature between 15-36 degree centigrade and the right type of soil. The crop takes 85 days to reach the required maturity level. Productivity is approximately four to five tonnes per acre and the best months are from February to March followed by June to August. India is a major exporter of provisionally preserved gherkin. Table 10 11 shows the cucumber and gherkin export from India. In India, Karnataka stands first in export, where cultivation is steadily growing since 2001 -02 accounting for a worth of INR 1200 million. During 2006-07 gherkins accounts to INR 3133 million which has been exported (Table 12). Table 10 Cucumber and gherkin exports from India (2007-08) Country Value( Million INR) Quantity (Tonnes) Share (%) ) UAE 1.96 142.75 17.55 Bangladesh 1.92 290.00 17.17 Netherland 1.78 93.10 15.92 Russia 1.66 83.50 14.91 Estonia 0.80 43.94 7.17 Nepal 0.75 74.42 6.75 Oman 0.75 70.00 6.74 Spain 0.55 31.82 4.95 France 0.47 20.21 4.27 Others 0.51 26.42 4.56 Total 11.20 876.18 100 Source: Gherkin and Pomegranate Cultivation Gherkin and Pomegranate Cultivation Abstract Horticulture is an important component of agriculture accounting for a very significant share in the Indian economy. Rising consumer income and changing lifestyles are creating bigger markets for high-value horticultural products in India as well as throughout the world. Among these, the most important high-value export products are fruits and vegetables. This study was conducted to analyze the comparative advantage and competitiveness of pomegranate and gherkin which are the important foreign exchange earner among fruit and vegetable crops exported from India. The primary data was collected from Tumkur and Bijapur district of Karnataka, India and secondary data was collected from concerned government institutions, APEDA and also from exporters of fruits and vegetables. The Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) was selected as the analytical tool to analyse the export competitiveness, comparative advantage, and the degree of government interventions in the production and export of gherkin and pomegranate. The policy distortions were measured through indicators of PAM. Garret ranking technique was used to analyse the constraints in the production and export of the selected crops. EPC of Gherkin (0.5) and pomegranate (0.45) values which found to be less than one indicates that producers are not protected through policy interventions. Whereas DRC (0.27 0.28) and PCR (0.43 0.59) values of Gherkin and Pomegranate respectively shows positive, social as well as private profit which indicates that, India has a competitive and comparative advantage in their production. The result for Garret ranking in case of gherkin shows that skilled labour and lack of superior quality are the major constraints in production and export of gherkin respectively. In case of pomegranate non availability of skilled labour, high incidence of pest and diseases, lack of transportation facilities, high residual effect of pesticide are the major constrain in production and export. The overall result shows that the cultivation as well as export of gherkin and pomegranate is economically profitable and efficient. Key Words: Gherkin, Pomegranate, PAM, EPC and DRC List of Acronyms Variable Definition APEDA Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority CIF Cost Insurance and Freight Crores 10 million DRC Domestic Resource Cost EPC Effective Protection Coefficient EU European Union FAOSTAT Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics FOB Free On Border FYM Farm Yard Manure ha Hectares HEIA Horticulture Export Improvement Association kg Kilogram MHA Million Hectare MT Million Tons NHB National Horticulture Board NPCI Nominal Protection Coefficient on Inputs NPCO Nominal Protection Coefficient on Outputs NPV Net Present Value PAM Policy Analysis Matrix PCR Private Cost Ratio INR Indian Rupees UAE United Arab Emirates UK United Kingdom UNCOMTRADE United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics UNFAO United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization USA United States of America 1. Introduction 1.1 Background Indian agriculture is vested with the herculean responsibility of feeding over more than one billion people. Out of total, 72% of Indias population live in rural areas, further three-fourth of the rural populations depend on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihoods. The present growth in agriculture in India is hassle with problems most importantly, agricultural growth slowed down to 2.1% between 1998-99 and 2004-05. It is largely due to a decline in the food grain sector that grew at merely 0.6%. Given the high dependence of the poor on agriculture, the stagnation in this sector is currently threatening to stall poverty reduction in India (Reddy, 2007). Given the present scenario, the immediate question to be addressed is how agricultural growth can be accelerated. The question can be answered through by diversifying the consumption pattern towards high value agricultural commodities in general and high value horticultural products in particular such as fruits and vegetables. In recent years there has been a great deal of interest among policymakers and trade analysts in the role of horticultural products as a principle means of agricultural diversification and foreign exchange earnings in developing countries. Horticultural products have high income elasticity of demand as income goes up the demand raises rapidly. It grows especially in middle and high income developing countries. As people are more cautious on health and nutrition, there is a paradigm shift from high fat, high cholesterol foods such as meat and live stock products to low fat and low cholesterol foods such as fruits and vegetables. As a result, the world has change d its attention towards high value agricultural products. Hence, it is crucial to be competitive in the world market to reap the potential gains of increased and growing world demand for horticultural products such as fruits and vegetables. Thus, the purpose of the present study attempts to evaluate the consequences of international trade and competitiveness of Indian horticulture with special reference to pomegranate and gherkin crops. In the recent past, these two crops got high export potential and earned good foreign exchange. 1.2 Studies on export of fruits and vegetables There are many studies related to export of horticultural crops especially fruits and vegetables from India. Chiniwar (2009) explained the numerous opportunities and challenges of the horticulture sector and observed that there is a tremendous potential for Indian pomegranates in the global market. He examined the growth of pomegranate exports from India. The study revealed that the growth of pomegranate exports from India is moderate in comparision to the potential for its exports. Tamanna et al. (1999) examined the export potential of selected fruits from India by using Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC). The results indicate that the exports of Indian fruits are highly competitive in the world market. Nalini et al. (2008) observed that India has made tremendous progress in the export of cucumber and gherkin products during the past 15 years (1990-2005). The export has increased by about 129 times with an impressive annual compound growth rate of 37.46 percent, as against only 4. 38 percent in the world market. An increasing and high value of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and a positive and increasing value for Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) have indicated high potential for their export. One percent increase in volume of international trade in cucumber and gherkin may increase the demand from India by 5.96 percent. This indicates that India is highly competitive in the export of cucumber and gherkin. It has ample scope to further increase its export. Gulati et al. (1994) analyzed the export competitiveness of selected agricultural commodities and identified the constraints in the export of fresh fruits, vegetables, processed fruits and vegetables. The above studies are related to export performance, growth, and constraints of fruits and vegetables. Most of these studies focused on aspects pertaining to export of fruits and vegetables. There are no studies on export policy especially related to efficiency and comparative advantage in world market. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to analyze the export competitiveness of pomegranate and gherkin by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM). The study has a high scope because competitiveness has become a key issue in the international market for export development of fruits and vegetables. 1.3 Research objectives In the present study, the export competitiveness of high value horticultural crops of India is analyzed. To be very precise, the study analyzes the competitiveness of gherkin and pomegranate in the world market. It also compares the advantages and constraints in the export of these crops with the following objectives and proposed hypothesis, which will be tested based on the results and conclusion. Specific objectives To assess the export competitiveness of Gherkin and Pomegranate To examine the production and export constraints of Gherkin and Pomegranate Hypothesis Export of gherkin and pomegranate are competitive in international markets 1.4 Structure of the thesis The study contains the results of the analysis of export competitiveness of horticultural crops in India. In the present study, opportunities are analyzed, constraints in production and export of gherkins and pomegranates from India. We further analyze the competitiveness and comparative advantage of these two crops in international market. The detailed information of this analysis is discussed in the following sections of the study. The first section of the thesis gives us an introduction and background on the nature of the problem, facts on the dynamics and underlying causes diversifying the consumption pattern of high value horticultural commodities. Further, a brief overview of existing studies on Indian agricultural and horticultural growth, export performance, and constraints will be discussed. The research question is broken down into specific objectives and a possible hypothesis has been put forth. The second section of the thesis will give a general overview of fruit and vegetable scenario in the world as well as in India. The section also explains the importance of selected fruit and vegetable by considering production, export and foreign exchange earnings which will help us to understand the export competitiveness of these crops from India. The third section deals with methodological framework which deals with the concepts and competitiveness of high value horticultural crops from India focusing on the application of PAM model for the study. In the same chapter, the current literature and outline of the major definitions for competitiveness and comparative advantage are studied. The above proposed model will be used as a tool to address the research objectives followed by data description. Fourth section highlights the findings of the research from the proposed model using collected information on pomegranate and gherkin cultivation, and their export. Finally, the proposed hypothesis is tested and the results inferred. The final section summarizes the whole research findings and provides meaningful policy implications. 2. Scenario of fruits and vegetables in India and the world 2.1 World scenario of fruits and vegetables 2.1.1 High value agricultural production Rising consumer income and changing lifestyles are creating bigger markets for high value agricultural products throughout the world. Among these, the most important high value export sector is horticulture, especially fruits and vegetables. The growing markets for these products present an opportunity for the farmers of developing countries to diversify their production out of staple grains and raise their income. Annual growth rates on the order of 8 to 10 percent in high value agricultural products is promising development (Fig.1), as the production, processing and marketing of these products create a lot of needed employment in rural areas. The rapid growth in high value exports has been part of fundamental and broad reaching trend towards globalization of the agro food system. Dietary changes, trade reform and technical changes in the food industry have contributed to the growth of high value agriculture and trade (World Bank, 2008). 2.1.2 World production of fruit and vegetables The production of fruit and vegetables all over the world grew by 30 percent between 1980 to 1990 and by 56 percent between 1990 to 2003. Much of this growth occurred in China where production grew up by 134 percent in 1980 and climbed to 200 percent by 1990 (UNFAO 2003). At present the world production of fruits and vegetables reached to 512 MT and 946.7MT respectively (Table 1 5). Vegetables: China is currently the worlds largest producer of vegetables, with the production 448.9 MT with an area of 23.9 MHA (47%) (Table 1), whereas India is in the 2nd position with the production of 125.8 MT with an area of 7.8 MHA (13%) followed by USA (4%), Turkey (3%) etc (Indian Horticulture Database, 2008) (Fig.2). Among the vegetable crops gherkin is considered for the study as it is one of the most important vegetable all over the world. Table 2 shows the international production of cucumber and gherkin from different parts of the world during 2007-08. China, Turkey, Iran, Russia and USA are the world largest producers of cucumber and gherkin (Table 3), whereas India position in the production is 34th but it reached 1st (Table 3) and 55th (Table 4) position in export of provisionally preserved and fresh cucumber gherkin respectively. Table 1 Major vegetables producing countries in the world (2007-08) Country Area(000 ha) Production(000 MT) Productivity(MT/ha) China 23936 448983 19 India 7803 125887 16 USA 1333 38075 29 Turkey 996 24454 25 Russia 970 16516 17 Egypt 598 16041 27 Iran 641 15993 25 Italy 528 13587 26 Spain 379 12676 33 Japan 433 11938 28 Others 16957 222625 13 Total 54573 946774 Source: Indian Horticulture Database (2008) Table 2 International production of cucumber and gherkin (2007-08) Country Production (MT) Share (%) China 28062000 62.9 Turkey 1875919 4.21 Iran, Islamic republic 1720000 3.86 Russian federation 1410000 3.16 USA 920000 2.06 Ukraine 775000 1.74 Japan 634000 1.42 Egypt 615000 1.38 Indonesia 600000 1.34 Spain 510000 1.14 Mexico 500000 1.12 Poland 492000 1.10 Iraq 480000 1.08 Netherland 445000 1.00 India 120000 0.27 Others 5452024 12.22 World 44610943 100 Source: Author, FAO (2008) Table 3 Major exporting countries of fresh cucumber and gherkin (2007) Country Value (USD) Share (%) Spain 557088 30.13 Mexico 437369 23.65 Netherland 419824 22.70 Canada 81707 4.42 Germany 44437 2.40 Turkey 40300 2.18 Greece 38920 2.10 Iran 27768 1.50 Belgium 25361 1.37 USA 16313 0.88 India 235 0.01 Others 159815 8.64 World 1849137 Source: Data from Agricultural and Processed food products Export development Authority (APEDA), India. Table 4 Major exporting countries of preserved cucumber and gherkin Country Value (USD) Share (%) India 33476 49.39 China 16754 24.72 Turkey 4193 6.19 Netherlands 3397 5.01 Belgium 2670 3.94 Vietnam 40300 2.11 Sri Lanka 1003 1.48 Germany 925 1.37 Spain 596 0.88 USA 992 0.87 World 65040 Source: U.N COMTRADE (2007) Fruits: World fruit production has steadily risen for the past four years (see Appendix 3 ). Table 5 shows the largest fresh fruit producers from different countries during 2007-08. China is the worlds largest fruit producer, producing 19 percent of the world fruits. India ranks second in the list of world producer accounting 12 percent of the worlds production followed by Brazil, where 7 percent of the worlds fruit was grown. (Figure 3) As production is increasing in China at alarming rate compare to other top producing countries. Production growth almost averaged 6 percent per year in China, while production growth in India averaged 2.73 percent per year. The EU experienced the lower annual growth rate of 0.89 percent. Whereas, the production in USA and Brazil has been relatively constant over the period, with average annual growth rates of 0.61 percent for the former and 0.34 percent for the later. Other countries Mexico, South Africa and Chile have experienced slightly higher av erage annual production growth rates of 2.12, 2.56 and 1.3 percent respectively over the same period (FAOSTAT 2008). Among all fruits pomegranate is considered for the present study. Figure 4 shows India is the world largest producer of pomegranate with 900 MT (36%) followed by Iran (31%), Iraq (3%), USA (4%) etc. Over the years Indias export rate for pomegranate has grown steadily to worth of INR0.61 million (US$13741) in 2007-08 with the share of 1.2 percent (Table 6). Table 5 Major fruit producing countries in the world (2007-08) Country Area(000 ha) Production(000 MT) Productivity(MT/ha) China 9587 94418 10 India 5775 63503 11 Brazil 1777 36818 21 USA 1168 24962 21 Italy 1246 17891 14 Spain 1835 15293 8 Mexico 1100 15041 14 Turkey 1049 12390 12 Iran 1256 12102 10 Indonesia 846 11615 14 Others 22841 208036 9 Total 48481 512070 Source: FAO Indian Horticulture Database (2008) Table 6 Pomegranate export from different parts of the world (2007) Country Value (USD) Share (%) Thailand 172781 15.06 Spain 138911 12.11 Vietnam 84532 7.37 Mexico 67739 5.91 Netherlands 63858 5.57 Madagascar 53822 4.69 Israel 45219 3.94 Uzbekistan 44128 3.85 Colombia 40459 3.53 Azerbaijan 37977 3.31 France 36975 3.22 Germany 17750 1.55 India 13741 1.20 Others 309565 27.45 World 1127457 100 Source: Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), India 2.2 Scenario of fruits and vegetables in India. Horticulture is an important component of agriculture accounting for a very significant share in the Indian economy. It is identified as one of the potential sector for harnessing Indias competitive advantage in international trade. Further it prepares India to achieve an overall trade target of 1% or more in the share of world trade. Meanwhile, making the country self-sufficient in the last few decades, horticulture has played a very significant role in earning foreign exchange through export. Horticultural crops cover approximately 8.5 percent of total cropped area (20 MHA) (Table 7) with annual production of 207 MT, and productivity of 10.3 MT per hectare during the year 2007-08 (FAO Indian Horticulture Database 2008). Among the horticultural crops fruits and vegetables play an important role, whereas exports of fruits and vegetables have increased over the years (Table 8). During 2004-05 export of fruits and vegetables was INR 13637.13 million as against INR 24116.57 million during 2006-07 (APEDA, 2008) Table 7 Area, production and productivity of horticultural crops in India Year Area (MHA) Production (MT) Productivity (MT/ha) ) 2001-02 16.6 145.8 8.8 2002-03 16.3 144.4 8.9 2003-04 19.2 153.3 21 2004-05 21.1 170.8 8.1 2005-06 18.7 182.8 9.8 2006-07 19.4 191.8 9.9 2007-08 20.1 207.0 10.3 Source: FAO Indian Horticulture Database (2008) Table 8 Export of horticultural produce in India Products 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value Floriculture seeds 34496 2871 42659 3922 50048 7713 Fresh Fruits vegetables 1296530 13637 1465040 16587 1983873 24117 Processed fruits vegetables 325293 9614 501826 13595 549949 17316 Total 1656319 261227 2009525 341051 258387 491459 Source: APEDA, India Note: Qty: MT, value : Million INR Vegetables: In vegetable production, India is next to China with a production of 125.8 million tonnes from 7.8 million hectares with a share of 13 percent in relation to world production (Table 9). The per capital consumption of vegetables is 120 grams per day (APEDA 2009). In case of Fresh vegetable Indias export has been increased from INR 433.14 Crore in 2006-07 to Rs 489.49 Crore in 2007-08. Major Export Destinations of these vegetables are UAE, UK, Nepal, and Saudi Arabia. (APEDA, 2009) Table 9 Area, production and productivity of vegetable crops in India Year Area (MHA) Production (MT) Productivity (MT/ha) ) 2001-02 6156 88622 14.4 2002-03 6092 84815 13.9 2003-04 6082 88334 14.5 2004-05 6744 101246 15.0 2005-06 7213 111399 15.4 2006-07 7584 115011 15.2 2007-08 7803 125887 16.1 Source: FAO Indian Horticulture Database (2008) Among all vegetables gherkin is considered for the present study due to following reasons. Indias export of gherkin has been steadily increased since 1997-98. It accounts for 24,490 tonnes of gherkins having an export potential of INR 50.27 crore as against 35,242 tonnes worth of INR 69.86 crore in 1999-2000 (Venkatesh, 2003). In recent year gherkin export has been increased to 61.5 million tonnes with a trade value of INR1465.5 million during 2007-08 (UNFAO Export Data, 2009). 2.2.1 Production and export importance of gherkin in India Gherkin crop is being selected for the present study. It is regarded as HEIA crop especially a hybrid crop. Gherkin cultivation and processing started in India in the early 90s and presently cultivated over 19,500 acres in the three southern states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Although gherkin can grow virtually in any part of the country, the ideal conditions required for growth prevail in these three states where the growing season extends throughout the year. It requires adequate water and temperature between 15-36 degree centigrade and the right type of soil. The crop takes 85 days to reach the required maturity level. Productivity is approximately four to five tonnes per acre and the best months are from February to March followed by June to August. India is a major exporter of provisionally preserved gherkin. Table 10 11 shows the cucumber and gherkin export from India. In India, Karnataka stands first in export, where cultivation is steadily growing since 2001 -02 accounting for a worth of INR 1200 million. During 2006-07 gherkins accounts to INR 3133 million which has been exported (Table 12). Table 10 Cucumber and gherkin exports from India (2007-08) Country Value( Million INR) Quantity (Tonnes) Share (%) ) UAE 1.96 142.75 17.55 Bangladesh 1.92 290.00 17.17 Netherland 1.78 93.10 15.92 Russia 1.66 83.50 14.91 Estonia 0.80 43.94 7.17 Nepal 0.75 74.42 6.75 Oman 0.75 70.00 6.74 Spain 0.55 31.82 4.95 France 0.47 20.21 4.27 Others 0.51 26.42 4.56 Total 11.20 876.18 100 Source:

Friday, October 25, 2019

Deon Sanders :: essays research papers

Deion Sanders is an American professional football and baseball player. He is one of the few athletes in history to succeed in two professional sports. Deion Luwynn Sanders was born on August 9, 1967 in Fort Meyers, Florida, where he grew up with his mother and stepfather. His parents got divorced when he was really young. Deion loved almost all sports and he was good at all of them. When he was 8 years old he started playing football and even though he was very young, he still was a star. He was even playing teams with kids older than him and still did very well. Another sport he played was baseball and he played that just as well as football. You might think that Deion didn’t have any religion in his past life, but he did. He grew up going to church with his mother. He has never drank or smoked. Since both of his fathers were addicted to those things, he made a commitment to stay away from that. One day he was with some friends in a car and they were smoking pot. He told them that he didn’t do that stuff and they left him alone. Throughout his high school years he played all different kinds of sports. He played football, baseball, basketball and ran track. He was one of the best in all those sports. When he played for his high school basketball team he was the leading scorer, and earned the name â€Å"Prime Time.† After his four years playing for his high school team, it was time to start looking for a college. Since he wanted his mother to come see him play, his first pick of colleges was Florida State. He had great careers in all the sports he played in. Before his senior year at Florida State University (FSU), the Yankees took him, so he played professional baseball while in college. While he was in college he decided he would stay away from cursing. So every time he cursed he would pay someone 5 bucks. In 1989 he was drafted by the Atlanta Falcons in the first round. In 1996 when he was playing for the Cowboys and Reds he felt miserable, he said, †After scoring touchdowns and dancing in the end zone, after a stadium full of cheering fans had finally gone home, I was still empty inside.† Nothing was making him happy, he tried money, women, and just about everything.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Everyday Healthcare Ethics Stress and Ethical Issues in Nursing Essay

The nursing is a fundamental sector in the provision of proper healthcare services to the individuals and the society as a whole. The importance of the sector is emphasized as it has a bearing on the health status of the economy. The state of health of the people forming part of the society today is of the essence. Improper health of individual workers affects the output of the workers negatively as they cannot effectively attend to their obligations at work. It results into a nation-wide loss of revenue. A healthy economy thrives in all the sectors as the workers are in a position to effectively deliver in their workplaces. A healthy economy earns good revenues. The inclusion of the issue of economic issues of the nation in the topic of health is of great magnitude. It shows the weight that the issue of healthcare has on the economic progress of the contemporary economy. The topic of nursing is one that cannot be avoided if the fate of the economy is to be established. The health se ctor in the contemporary society faces several ethical issues in the nursing sector (Baillie, 2013). A major aspect of the ethical issues that are subject to heated debates is the stress factor at the workplace. Critics postulate that the sector contains a large group of nurses who are burdened by stress. It is dreaded that the continuous contact of the nurses with stressful conditions can negatively impact on their delivery in the job set-up (Baillie, 2013). The extent to which stress affects service delivery in the health sector has not been established, and it attracts substantial attention in research. The stress that the paper capitalizes on is the stress that a nurse worker is exposed to in and off the workplace. It is noted that stress can lead to the sprouting of other ethical challenges (Baillie, 2013). The paper capitalizes on the various ethical challenges exhibited in the nursing profession. It discusses the possible effects of the ethical challenges, causation factors and their relation to stress as a major ethical issue in the provision of  healthcare services. The recommends the latest remedies that can be employed to minimize stress. Forms of ethical challenges and causes of stress in the nursing industry Nurses encounter challenges and dilemmas in circumstances that they cannot get the opportunity to undertake what they think is right (Luhanga et al., 2010). Such circumstances require steady thinking and making of substantial resolutions that can work. The urge of the nurses to be good professionals intensifies the need to meditate on a given situation clouded by dilemma. The circumstances that present the nurse with a tough question to answer often trigger the development of stress within the worker. The stress is experienced at the very stage of making a decision on a given critical issue and also after the decision is made in response to the tough situation. The nurses, therefore, experience a great extent of moral distress. The event of the experience triggers varied reactions in different nurses. Some of the nurses have the courage to speak out their minds while some lack such courage and they go around hiding their problems. Burden of Witnessing an Ailing Patient The forms of ethical challenges such as stress could be drawn based on the causation factor. There is a burden of witnessing the ailing of the patients in their hospital beds. There are many patients who suffer for a longtime in the hospitals and their conditions keep worsening to the point of death. Such scenarios affect the nurses who provide healthcare services if they are constantly exposed to the similar circumstances. The work of a nurse is to relieve the suffering of the patient. The complex intervention that are resorted to, often lead to more suffering of the patients. The nurses are, therefore, torn between effecting the remedy and letting the patient remain in the state of mild suffering. The thought of being unable to contain the situation when there is an available option that can be exploited poses a great challenge to the nurses. The mental burden of bearing the suffering in their minds for such long durations may affect their service delivery if a remedy is not effect ed swiftly (Luhanga et al., 2010) Ignorance of the Family Members of the Patient The ethical challenges obviously had to do with watching the patients suffer: a suffering that the nurses deem to be unnecessary. It is understandable that the available nursing interventions that may be effected may serve to increase the suffering of the patient without causing an outcome for improvement. The other form of challenge that nurses experience could be the stress caused by the ignorance of the family of the patient and the patients about the available treatment options that can be exploited in a given scenario. They do not know the clinical prognosis of the treatment option that is available and the family of the patient do not stop at establishing whether the voice of the patient is taken care of in most situations (Tully, 2014). The family members of the patient often press on the administration of treatments without the knowledge of the resulting repercussions of the said treatment to the patient. They also criticize and influence the decision that is made by the patient on the appropriate treatment to be administered. The indulgence of the external parties in matters of the patient’s medication or treatment stresses-up nurses and other medics too (Tully, 2014). The stress often comes up when they are forced to administer treatments based on past successful occasion on a patient with a different diagnosis. The problem also comes in after the controversial treatment is effected, and the effects appear to be detrimental to the patient. The latter scenarios are often characterized by fierce criticism of the nurse who participated in administering the treatment. The professionalism of the participating nurse is usually questioned and in some cases the nurse can even end up in a court of law. Such cases are major instances that causes mental stress and shapes the origins or forms in which the said ethical challenges arise in the course of provision of healthcare services. Co nflict of Interest Offering care to the patients presents another form through which stress emerges in the nursing profession. It is the kind of ethical challenge that emanates from a conflict between the interest of the organisation and interest of the individual nurses (Tully, 2014). The health providers including private clinics, public hospitals and other health institutions have their rules that they often regard as ethical. The health providers often strive to push for actions that serve their best interests in the  industry of health service. The most prominent organisation that have strict rules are the private entities. The issue of conflict here is usually the payment modalities. It is known that the economic capabilities of patients differ and the methods of making medical payments cannot be the same for all the patients. The rules of the medical institutions provide that payments should be made promptly to the institution for any service that is provided to the patient. Some patients ofte n have no ready cash owing to their economic circumstances and the high cost of medical healthcare. Organisation often insists that payments are to be made immediately before the commencement of treatment even in conditions where the patient is in critical conditions (Ulrich, 2010). The nurses are the intermediaries between the management and the patients. Therefore, they are the people entitled to further or to carry out the interest of the organisation. They often face the challenge of serving the organisation or providing services to the patient to save a life. The challenge exists in trying to strike a balance between being loyal to the employer and saving the life of an innocent patient in a critical condition. Seeing an innocent and helpless patient die in the event of serving the interest of the employer could be so stressful in real life. As much as money is needed to take care of the medical expenses of the medical provider, the interest of the patient of lower economic status must also be regarded to ensure that the nurses do not suffer from the challenge of divided interest (Ulrich, 2010). The work environment The contemporary society presents various complications in the field Medicare. The complications are witnessed in the structure of the organisation and in the communication channels that are used in the medical institution (Seedhouse, 2013). The structure of the leadership in a medical institution and the mode of communication can serve to frustrate the nurses in the workplace. Several nurses report difficulties in communication and instances of workplace bullying. The elements mentioned are part of serious work environment ethical concerns in the contemporary society. The present hierarchy of work structure in the management is designed in a manner that does not encourage communication among workers. Most organisation exhibit tall leadership structures. Tall leadership structures contribute to the  discouraging of vertical communication among the workers in a medical institution. The junior employees are placed in a circumstance where they can hardly initiate or communicate to the senior employees about any ethical issue that may arise. Nurses are the employees who are ranked at the lower topology of the leadership organogram just after the subordinate staff. Their placement does not allow them effectively to pass ethical issue to their bosses (Seedhouse, 2013). Stress comes in when the ethical issues such as gender violence at work, bullying at the workplace or any other related mistreatment issues cannot be passed to higher authorities for deliberation. The condition presents a scenario where several issue build-up beyond the control of the employee. The build-up of issues in the minds of the nurses causes them to be stressed up in their workplaces, and this has a negative influence on the quality of the services delivered. Understaffing The other issue causing stress is the issue of staffing. The society today is characterized by increased levels of ailments and various diseases that come up every day. The presence of chronic diseases, as well as, the occurrence of several accidents presents a scenario where the number of the patients in the health facilities increase tremendously. The increase in the number of patients causes the necessity for an increase in the numbers of nurses who can promptly attend to the patients. Despite the large increase, the nurse to patient ratio has not been any better (Maynard, 2011). The nurses are therefore overloaded with work in their work environments. Their bosses exert much pressure on them to deliver as per the job description that they signed. The process of striking a balance in attending to many patients is quite stressful and can cause them to deliver poor services to the patients. The nurses are, therefore, forced to dodge certain duties that are assigned to them in genuine terms. Some of the nurses suffer emotional disturbance in instances where they genuinely neglect a duty due to the fact that they were held up in delivering services to the other patients. Understaffing, therefore, causes stress to the nurses through the creating of a hectic working environment that is over-demanding to the nurses (Maynard, 2011). Prioritization of the Patients’ Needs The patients in the health care institutions do not only have health  problems, but they also have emotional disorders. The emotional needs of the patients also deserve to be addressed promptly as they also affect the healing process of the patients. The nurses are individuals specialized in the provision of Medicare services to the patients. They are not adequately trained to address the emotional needs of the patients. At times, situations that demand the addressing of an emotional condition of the patient arises and this calls for the attention of the nurses. Being that the nurses are not well trained in the field and that they have other health duties to attend to, they are often faced with the challenge of taking up the duty to provide emotional support to the respective patient (Mark, 2012). If they decide to avoid attending to the emotional duty, they may feel that they are not doing any good to the patients who do not receive optimal healthcare. They also feel that the family of the patient may give a negative feedback on their performances in the occasion that they did not get full support. Their attention is divided in prioritizing the nature of the duty to indulge in when such cases arise. The event can cause emotional distress and mental stress to the nurses, hence leading to the causation of other opportunistic ethical nursing problems. Advanced Technology in Healthcare Provision Technology used in the delivery of healthcare services are becoming more complicated with time. Almost all the tasks in the health institution are performed with the aid of a machine (Maynard, 2011). The nurses are, therefore, placed in a condition where they have no other easy alternative, but to learn how to use the technology. The patients under treatment at times could be more knowledgeable on the respective technologies that the nurse. The resulting situation can possible cause a challenge to the nurse as he will not be comfortable in the process of using the technology on such a patient. The nurses are, therefore, entitled to keep updating themselves on the new technology that is used in the field of healthcare provision. The process of maintaining a regular update on the use of the current technology could cause much stress to the nurses (Ulrich et al., 2010). Nurses are stressed when they cannot balance between learning new tricks at work and providing healthcare services eff ectively. Recommendation for Reduction of Stress The elements that cause stress to the nurses in the health organisations deserve to be addressed promptly. It is because stress as an ethical issue causes impacts that stretch to very many fields and varied stakeholders at play. Stress affects the delivery of the nurses in the health sector. The section provides remedies that should be considered in ensuring that the aspects that cause stress in the workplace are negated. The recommendation will also guide in the proper management of the stress whenever it is contracted by the nurses. The recommendations below are specifically tailored for containing the stress condition for the nurses. Research shows that a scheduled course of guided coaching in mindfulness deliberation or mediation practices, facilitated group discussion, yoga and stretching, home assignments and work, and individually tailored support and instruction can serve to minimize the effects of stress in a nurse (Ulrich et al., 2010). The remedy is justified from a demonstration in a research work that was carried out. The overall health and well-being of the nurses who participated in the demonstration was surveyed at three points namely 2 weeks prior to research, immediately after the program, and four months following the program. Results displayed statistical improvement in the wellness and overall health of the nurses at each point of intervention (Clark, 2010). The program can be recommended for use by the nurses. Stress prevention can be initiated through the initiation of measures that prevent the occurrence of other ethical issues as stress is indirectly connected to them (Opie et al., 2013). Mo st of the ethical issues cause stress and, therefore, their prevention results into minimization of the occurrence of stress among medical nurses. The administration of the health institutions should look for ways that encourage the realization of community obligation to the patient, with partnership in answering questions and conversing about ethical issues. It helps the families and the community at large to understand the circumstances under which the nurses undertake their obligation (Hussain, 2009). It will save the nurses from receiving intensive criticism when a given treatment responds negatively, hence the nurse concerned will be less stressed. The administration should ensure that the nurses are trained to provide emotional support to the patients who need such services to avoid the development of the feeling that shoddy work  has been done. Nurses should reflect on how they can manage to complete obligations. Nurses should call on their team members, for instance to help them balance between talking and tasks with a patient who is dismayed (Clark, 2010). As nurses develop and advance in experience, they become bett er. Relevant training must be done to the nurses on the usage of technology in the delivery of health services to clients so as to avoid embarrassing situations. The nurses can advocates for the availability of adequate staffing that is suitable for the patient population (Clark, 2010). They should also know how to resolve issues when there is inadequate staffing Conclusion The development in the contemporary society presents complications in various sectors. Health sector is not an exception. Many ethical issues that cause stress are seen to arise in the healthcare sector. The ethical issue arises from the unfavorable work environments of the workers, poor leadership structures, and lack of effective communication among workers, understaffing, and ignorance of the community among others. The effective implementation of the recommendation will serve to restore sanity in nursing as they will aid in preventing ethical conditions that cause stress to the nurses. As a result, the provision of healthcare services by the nurses will be improved to adequate levels. References Baillie, H. W. (2013). Health care ethics (6th Ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall. Clark, A. C. (2010). Anxiety and Stress Management Toolkit Anxiety and Stress Management Toolkit. Nursing Standard, 15(52), 29-29. Hussain, F. (2009). Handbook for Health Care Ethics Committees (review). Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 20(3), 929-930. Luhanga, F., Myrick, F., & Yonge, O. (2010). The Preceptorship Experience: An Examination of Ethical and Accountability Issues. Journal of Professional Nursing, 26(5), 264-271. Mark, F. (2012). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Nursing. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 37(4), 179. Maynard, A. (2011). Ethics and health care ‘underfunding’. Journal of Medical Ethics, 27(4), 223-227. Opie, T., Dollard, M., Lenthall, S., & Knight, S. (2013). Occupational Stress in Remote Area Nursing: Development of the Remote Area Nursing Stress Scale (RANSS). Journal of Nursing Measurement, 21(2), 246-263. Seedhouse, D. (2013). What is the difference between health care ethics, medical ethics and nursing ethics? Health Care Analysis, 5(4), 267-274. Tully, A. (2014). Stress, sources of stress and ways of coping among psychiatric nursing students. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(1), 43-47. Ulrich, C. M., Taylor, C., Soeken, K., O. Donnell, P., Farrar, A., Danis, M., et al. (2010). Everyday Ethics: Ethical Issues and Stress in Nursing Practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(11), 2510-2519.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Tezuka Osamu - Biography of Anime and Manga Artist

Tezuka Osamu - Biography of Anime and Manga Artist Depending on where you look or whos talking, youll see Tezuka referred to as the God, Father, Godfather, Grandfather, Emperor and/or King of both manga and anime. (Manga and anime, then - remember those two types of art.) Whichever of these titles you wish to give the man, it is wholly deserved. He didnt merely change the future of manga and create anime as we know it, he worked ceaselessly. Over the course of his career, Tezuka created and wrote more than 700 manga series containing an estimated 170,000 pages of drawings, and another 200,000 pages of anime storyboards and scripts. Date and Place of Birth: November 3, 1928, Toyonaka, Osaka Prefecture, Japan Early Life: The eldest of three children, Osamu was born into a family of doctors, lawyers, and military men. His father was an engineer, but had drawn manga prior to marriage, kept a large library of manga and bought a movie projector that would introduce Osamu to two major artistic influences: the animators Walt Disney and Max Fleischer. According to family accounts, his parents were strict disciplinarians but also supportive and encouraging of their childrens interests. When young Osamu showed an affinity for drawing, they kept him supplied with sketchbooks. His parents were also forward-thinking and, as a result, Osamu attended a progressive school where classes were co-ed. He was a bright student who excelled in composition and won popularity with his classmates for his manga sketches and picture cards (which they circulated amongst themselves). When he was nine, Osamu used his drawing and newly-formed writing skills to produce his first multi-page manga. By age eleven, he was wearing his trademark black-rimmed glasses and had solidified a lifelong interest in insects. He also began using the pen name Osamushi, a play on words between his name and an insects. Dr. Tezuka: Despite many other activities (acting and playing the piano, for two examples) he pursued through school and beyond, Tezuka continued to draw. After nearly losing both arms to an infection as a teenager, though, he decided to also study medicine. Due to a severe shortage of doctors in occupied Japan, Tezuka, then 17, was admitted to the medical school of Osaka University in 1945. He was qualified to practice medicine by 1952 and successfully defended his doctoral thesis in 1961. These were noble goals and testify to his keen intelligence. Tezukas heart, however, was more given to visual art than it was to science. The Making of a Manga-ka: Shortly after entering medical school Tezuka sold his first comic strip, a four-panel serial called Diary of Ma-chan to an Osaka childrens newspaper. Though it appeared in limited circulation, the strip proved popular enough to generate publisher interest in the artist. In short order, he sold the manga The New Treasure Island, the first in a long line of his adaptations from Western literature. Treasure Island made Tezuka nationally famous and proved to be the tipping point in his career. Even while completing medical school, he published manga at a furious clip, graduating to larger newspapers and reader numbers. From 1950 until his death, Tezuka worked non-stop. It seemed natural to him to transition his manga characters into the animation he so loved, and thus a genre was born. Even he could not have foreseen that his Astro Boy would take anime global and offer Tezuka international fame. Ever the workaholic, he produced nearly 500 anime episodes and this while continuing to conceive, write and draw volumes of some 700 different manga titles. Tezukas enduring impact on Japanese popular culture - indeed, on world popular culture - is nearly impossible to overstate. He was truly an exceptionally influential artist. Best Known for Today: Introducing the big-eyed characters that are omnipresent in anime and manga (his influences: Bambi and Betty Boop).Incorporating cinematic action into manga, which had been a static art form prior to Tezukas handling.Popularizing manga in Post-war Japan.Creating anime. (Two short words that now represent a multi-billion dollar global industry. Yearly.)Influencing new generations of manga-ka and animators.Making becoming a manga-ka or animator as lofty a goal as, say, becoming a physician. Perhaps even more lofty as goals and, thanks to Tezuka, highly respected and financially rewarding ones. Important Works: Jungle Taitei (Jungle Emperor), 1950-54. Later released as the animated series Kimba the White Lion in the U.S.Tetsuwan ATOM (Astro Boy), 1952-68Ribon no Kishi (Princess Knight), 1953-56Hi no Tori (The Phoenix), 1956-89. Tezukas personal favorite and the series he worked on continuously from its inception until his death.Black Jack, 1973-83Buddha, 1974-84The Stories of Three Adolfs, 1983-85 See pictures of Tezuka Osamus work in the Special Exhibition Gallery Tezuka: The Marvel of Manga. Date and Place of Death: February 9, 1989, Tokyo, Japan; of stomach cancer. His posthumous Buddhist name is Hakugeiin Denkakuenju Shodaikoji. How to Pronounce Tezuka Osamu: tezz ·oo ·kah oss ·ah ·moo (Note: This is the Japanese styling, family name first and given name second. If youd prefer to say the artists name Western-style, simply switch the order of the two words.) Quotes From Tezuka Osamu: I felt [after the war] that existing comics were limiting. Most were drawn as if seated in an audience viewing from a stage, where the actors emerge from the wings and interact. This made it impossible to create dramatic or psychological effects, so I began to use cinematic techniques. French and German movies that I had seen as a schoolboy became my model. I experimented with close-ups and different angles, and instead of using only one frame for an action scene or the climax (as was customary), I made a point of depicting a movement or facial expression with many frames, even many pages. The result was a super-long comic that ran to 500, 600, even 1,000 pages. I also believed that comics were capable of more than just making people laugh. So in my themes, I incorporated tears, grief, anger, and hate, and I created stories where the ending was not always happy.Manga is virtual. Manga is sentiment. Manga is resistance. Manga is bizarre. Manga is pathos. Manga is destruction. Manga is arrogance. Manga is love. Manga is kitsch. Manga is a sense of wonder. Manga is †¦ there is no conclusion yet. Im begging you, let me work! - reported by both his wife of nearly thirty years, Etsuko and Takayuki Matsutani, president of Mushi Productions (Tezukas studio), to have been the artists last words. Sources and Further Reading Gravett, Paul. Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics.New York: Collins Design, 2004.Gresh, Lois; Robert Weinberg The Science of Anime: Mecha-Noids and AI-Super-Bots.New York: Thunders Mouth Press, 2005.Hornyak, Timothy N. Loving the Machine: The Art and Science of Japanese Robots.Tokyo: Kodansha International, 2006.Schodt, Frederik L. Astro Boy Essays: Osamu Tezuka, Mighty Atom, and the Manga/Anime Revolution.Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press, 2007.Schodt, Frederik L. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga.Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press, 1996.

Monday, October 21, 2019

James Polk 11th President Facts

James Polk 11th President Facts James K. Polk (1795-1849) served as Americas eleventh president. He was known as the dark horse as he was not expected to beat his opponent, Henry Clay. He served as president during a period of manifest destiny, overseeing the Mexican War and the entry of Texas as a state.   ere is a quick list of fast facts for James Polk. For more in depth information, you can also read the James Polk Biography.   Birth: November 2, 1795 Death: June 15, 1849 Term of Office: March 4, 1845-March 3, 1849 Number of Terms Elected: 1 Term First Lady: Sarah Childress James Polk Quote: No President who performs his duties faithfully and conscientiously can have any leisure.Additional James Polk Quotes Major Events While in Office: Oregon Treaty (1846) Mexican War (1846-1848) States Entering Union While in Office: Texas (1845) Iowa (1846)Wisconsin (1848) Significance:   James K. Polk increased the size of the US more than any other president other that Thomas Jefferson due to the acquisition of New Mexico and California after the   Mexican-American War. He also completed a treaty with England that resulted in the US gaining the  Oregon Territory. He was an  effective chief executive during the  Mexican-American War. Historians consider him to be the best one-term president. Related James Polk Resources: These additional resources on James Polk can provide you with further information about the president and his times. James Polk BiographyTake a more in depth look at the Eleventh president of the United States through this biography. Youll learn about his childhood, family, early career, and the major events of his administration. Chart of Presidents and Vice PresidentsThis informative chart gives quick reference information on the Presidents, Vice-Presidents, their terms of office and their political parties. Other Presidential Fast Facts: John TylerZachary TaylorList of American Presidents

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Narrative report on yes for peace Essays

Narrative report on yes for peace Essays Narrative report on yes for peace Essay Narrative report on yes for peace Essay Bananas Para as Japanning 2013 The more we sweat in peace, the less we bleed in war. This is according to Vagina Alkalis Bandit. YES FOR PEACE Banning Para As Japanning 2013, is a campaign that aims to encourage at least 10 Million peace-loving Filipinos, 10 years and older to speak as one to provide a democratic peoples mandate for the comprehensive peace process particularly the permanent cessation of hostilities between the government and all rebel groups in 2013. The earnest implementation of agreed upon programs and projects for the attainment of a Just, comprehensive and lasting peace within the term of the current administration. This is per Duped Advisory No. 177, s. 2012 re: Additional Information to Duped Memorandum No. 277, s. 2011- (Yes For Peace- Banning Para as Japanning). Wake National High School Annex administers the YES FOR PEACE campaign to their students. The campaign was integrated to Railing Panamanian. The students were told to write an essay, create a poster and slogan and present a role play that hows the thought of the campaign. March 4, 2013, poster and slogan making for YES FOR PEACE was started. Every year level pours out all their creativity and imagination in their drawings. As they display their output, different ideas and different interpretations were drawn that really suits to their advocacy. The next day, March 5, 2013, the students were making their essays. Each student had varied ideas and opinions regarding the topic. Some asked why peace is elusive? and some are Just merely expressing their thoughts. Different ideas were eared, different opinions were shared as they write their essays, but still the main topic of each output is to achieve peace which serve as the common factor of the students. It takes them an hour of silence before they gave their papers to their teacher. The activity showed the serious participation of the students regarding the advocacy. Hence, due to the campaign, the whole school community was now peace lover. Prepared by: VIVE T. JUDICIAL Railing Panamanian Coordinator GLORIA M. PARAGUAY Principal 1 PICTORIAL Poster and Slogan Making

Saturday, October 19, 2019

'Australian banks have remained very sound by international Research Paper

'Australian banks have remained very sound by international standards,despite the global financial turmoil' observed the IMF, and impact on Australian Bank - Research Paper Example It is apparent that if a residential mortgage shock is joined with corporate losses, it will definitely harm banks. Local reports on Australian banks performance indicated that a stress test is based on a worse case scenario that would categorize other banks in the world in the same position (IMF 2010). In fact, it is argued that although such observations from the IMF stand to be correct, Australian banks were believed to obtain considerable aid from taxpayers and the Reserve Bank. Besides, it is argued that Australian federal government helps banks in events of crisis. Overall, reports have indicated that the Australian banking system was resilient during global financial crisis due to intensive supervision and regulation. Although, the four major Australian banks capital ratios are place below global average for large banks, their conservative approaches in implementing Base II framework indicates that their headline capital rations underestimate their capital strength. The major financial soundness indicators that these banks concentrated on include profitability, capital adequacy, asset quality and provisioning, and liquidity. On particular, the Australian banks’ loss given default rates are arguably higher than those of several other countries. Additionally, higher risk weights were endorsed for certain residential mortgages. Moreover, reduced risk weights, which are allowed in the Basel II framework’s standardized approach, were introduced for retail lending (IMF 2010). Nevertheless, the risk weighted assets numbers can not be comparable across nations. All in all, due to APRA’s conservative eligibility and deduction rules, Australian banks have a propensity of holding higher quality capital. According to RBA, in regard to Basel III requirements, banks will need to hold more and higher quality capital. In light with this, the Australian banks can be argued

Friday, October 18, 2019

Metaphor Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Metaphor - Article Example The recent political scandal in UK is MP’s expenses. A huge upheaval regarding the misuse of allowances and exploitation of claims has been in the limelight of late, evoking questions about MP’s role in democracy. Media is the watchdog in democracy. It has already started investigating into the scandal and is attempting to make up for any flaws in the democracy. There are accusations against a significant number of MPs. What does this imply? Is politics power? Where does the money come from? The public who elect the representatives pay for them. Allowances are nothing but the taxes that the public of their constituencies pay. If an MP exploits parliamentary allowance, he/she is answerable to media as well to the public, the money exploited is theirs. MPs spending for their personal needs are neglecting their promise towards their constitution and people. Government should come down hard on the MPs who misuse their position for their personal gains. Subsidy is for the public and not for the government and the people who are part of it. Unless they live a normal life of a common man, how can they relate to the problems and needs of their society and cater to it? But MPs consider their position as money breeding opportunity and not as a responsibility to serve the public. They look upon themselves hardly as public servants but go after luxuries for themselves. MP’s expenses are not alone a scandal but a sign of the times. Can there be any additional evidence for the deterioration of democracy and exploitation of authority? Ask the MPs, how best the tax can be used? Should there be any question at all about how they use the allowances? Why not? It is after all the public’s

Sequel to Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw Essay

Sequel to Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw - Essay Example The play commence when Mrs. Eynsford Hill with her daughter, Clara, wait for her son, Freddy to hail a taxi raining weather. Freddy notices the flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, selling a flower that had fallen down and paid for by a mother and a son to a man (Shaw, 8). Henry Higgins, a phonetician was taking notes in a phonetic script on the conversation Eliza had. The gentleman Eliza had propositioned names himself as Colonel Pickering to Higgins. The note taker gives Eliza a handful of coins and later part together for a dinner. Eliza visits Higgins and Pickering in a laboratory the subsequent morning. She surprises the two phoneticians by asking for an English lesson (Shaw, 59). Pickering challenges Higgins that he cannot convert Eliza into a compelling duchess in 6 months. Later, Eliza sits for her first public test that occurs at Higgins mother’s dwelling (Shaw, 59). Higgins finds out that Eliza still required serious training when she narrated an off-color tale about her re latives to the visitors. After six months, Higgins and Pickering take Eliza to an Embassy ball. Eliza’s exceptional speech and the beauty she presents make the Ambassador’s wife blissful.... Doolittle to his wedding. Later Eliza launches a florist shop after a colorful wedding. Pickering becomes the financial assistance of the florist shop. Sequel to Pygmalion The main theme seen in the sequence to Pygmalion is romance that takes the core part when evaluating the play. The details that wind up the play are summarized to ensure that indolent readers do not get the wrong ending intentions he puts across. The main thing he wants to ensure that his anticipated romance is not misinterpreted as a cliche. Problem The act of Eliza refusing to marry Higgins is insisted by Shaw (Shaw, 92). Eliza believes that she was still young and attractive; hence had no pressure to marry anyone. She believes that Higgins is domineering and insensitive, though He was rich and competent of sustaining her, Shaw shows that the high principles set by Higgins mother; Mrs. Higgins makes Eliza unlikely to marry him (Shaw, 92). Another aspect is that he had passions in his life that exceeded the zeal f or sex, which clearly shows the difficulty of Eliza getting married to him. The fact that Freddy continued to assert his scale of love he had her for Eliza on a daily basis made him think that Higgins will never worship and humble himself before her. In his play, Shaw shows how it is common for stronger individuals to look for weak partners for a hand in marriage (Shaw, 92). He explains the boredom that exists amid two similar partners having the same characteristics and ability living together. Shaw ends by giving a synopsis of the beginning of Freddy and Eliza lives together and concluding that Freddy was more attractive than Higgins. This is an aspect that influences Eliza to love Freddy more than Higgins. At the beginning of their matrimony life, Shaw manages to depict the financial

Assassinations in International Relations Essay

Assassinations in International Relations - Essay Example l relations. Such acts by the powerful countries need to be discussed on the parameters of the three theories of international relations, namely realism, liberalism, and constructivism (Wait 2011, par. 1). The theory of realism is based on assumptions. There are two competing branches of realism based on the assumptions about the behavior of the state, one is the neorealist theory of Kenneth Waltz and another is postclassical realism, which is not similar to Waltz neorealist theory. The impact of the theory of realism crosses the threshold to enter the non-realist theories such as liberalism, another political theory based on the positive human values such as right to freedom, favoring democratic rights. So far an exchange between the two theories has not been fruitful because the neorealist theory stresses with sureness that such an interaction would be a useless exercise. Constructivist theory was an attempt to find new means away from the theories of realism and liberalism. A cons tructivist sees the international relations as â€Å"an interactive process in which the ideas and communications among agents serve to create â€Å"structures†. These structures, in turn, influence the ideas and communications of the agents.† (Rourke 2007, 30). Seeing the height of extremism in political spheres at global scale, supporters of assassinations find nothing wrong morally to indulge in cutting the head of the dragon itself as there is no other option left using military force on the large scale by waging a prolonged war with no end result in sight. War affects the innocent; the actual culprits cannot be nabbed. The â€Å"ethical disconnect,† pervades as stated by Ralph Peters by not making a direct attack on dictators like Saddam Hussein committing atrocities on innocent people; it is devoid of ethical logic. Nonetheless, the norm against assassinations of such scale and kind have been there, which, off late, have been broken by the major super powe r, the U.S. Actually, this norm has been residing in ethical injunctions of basic moral principles in global politics getting strength from the design of international system (Thomas 2000, 106-7). Discussing the reality aspect of the norm as a concession, Thomas (2000, 123-24) states that states were against the norm to assassinate a foreign leader as it was not worth the effort. Assassination was observed as inefficient tool of foreign policy because of doubt over the success of the assassination, as leaders’ security was unassailable. Another reason of going against the norm of assassinations was not getting the desired outcomes of serving the purpose. Thomas findings on norms and practices related to international assassinations indicate how the assassination norms have shifted greatly over time. According to Thomas, it was a quite common foreign policy tool in old times, but a number of changing material factors and evolving normative principles started strong norm agains t the killing of foreign leaders because preference was given to fight of the armies on the battle ground and also because

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome - Essay Example Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is no exception since it is a lethal and rare mental disorder (Varcarolis and Halter, 2010, p. 331). According to Keogh and Doyle (2008), Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is the idiosyncratic reaction to neuroleptic medication. It has serious and adverse effects on individuals that may result in death. This disorder occurs when patients: are under neuroleptic medication regardless of the duration of use, use antipsychotic medication and patients will exhibit signs and when patients use antidepressants. As observed, majority of patients shows signs and symptoms of NMS after two weeks of commencing treatment antipsychotic treatment. These symptoms, according to Varcarolis and Halter (2010) are: altered mental status in patients, muscular rigidity in a patients, hyperthermia, fever, urinary incontinence, motor abnormalities such as lack of movement coupled with tremor, and automatic function that is high or low pressure (p. 331). Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome can present a broad range of clinical manifestations that can pose a challenge to early detection. The diversity and complexity of its clinical features may not always be welcomed as it leads to confusion among nurses. In order for the nurse to avoid this, they should be aware of NMS classical features such as muscular rigidity, automatic instability and hyperthermia (Koegh & Doyle, 2008). Instant and proper treatment of this disease is advised. It demands prompt, and recognition of the disorder at an early stage and adoption, and implementation of pharmacological interventions such as the use of dopamine agonist is required. In addition, antipyretics such as paracetamol can be administered to reduce fever. Prompt discontinuation of antipsychotic is also helpful as articulated by Koegh & Doyle (2008). In addition, symptomatic management of this disorder is also significant. Nurses are required to monitor patients with this disease

Discuss the motives underlining Mergers & Acquisition and compare the Essay

Discuss the motives underlining Mergers & Acquisition and compare the outcomes of the different methodologies used to analyse M& - Essay Example Considering this aspect, the paper discusses the motives underlying M&A in different organisations. The objective of the article is to explore as to why organisations opt for executing M&A strategy. Furthermore, the paper also compares about the outcomes of different methodologies that are used in analysing the impact of M&A. Table of Contents Abstract 2 Literature Review 4 Overview of Merger & Acquisition 4 Nature of Merger & Acquisition 4 Motives Underlying M&A 5 Comparative Analysis of M&A 10 References 13 Literature Review Overview of Merger & Acquisition Merger & acquisition (M&A) which is also acknowledged as takeover is regarded to be an important strategy that use by various organisations in recent days in order to accomplish higher economies of scale. According to Lahovnik (2000), M&A is considered as one of the most prevalent approaches of organisations in today’s global businesses. The incorporation of local market into international economy, improvement of financia l market along with liberalisation and deregulation procedure strongly supports the approach of M&A. Schoenberg (2009) stated that M&A provides a common way for organisations in terms of accomplishing quick growth and rapid market entry. ... Such activities are usually voluntary in nature and often lead towards a new corporate identity. Merger can be aggressive or friendly in nature and in this procedure, the acquirer exercise full control on the acquired organisation. Gaughan (2007) described merger as grouping of two or more than two organisations where only a single organisation can sustain. Sudarsanam (2003) stated that M&A is implemented interchangeably. He defined that merger is a procedure where organisations share their resources in order to accomplish mutual objectives, but the shareholders still retain their ownership in the newly formed organisation. On the basis of the study conducted by Picot (2002), M&A indicates number of different transactions ranging from acquiring as well as selling of undertakings, agreements, collaboration and joint ventures to the establishment of organisations or corporate progression that certify individuality of dealings, transformation in legal form, preliminary public offering a nd reorganisation. Jagersma (2005) stated that merger is the arrangement of two or in excess of two organisations in establishment of a new entity or creation of a holding company. On the other hand, acquisition is the buying of shares and assets of other organisation in order to accomplish administrative powers. Motives Underlying M&A Carline & et. al., (2009) has described three motives for organisations to engage in M&A that comprise cooperation motive, hubris motive and intervention motive. Every motive has its own inference in relation to the advantages of organisations adopting as well as implementing M&A. Lemnsic & Maslennikova (2008)