Wednesday, January 9, 2019
Air Pollution Essay
BEIJING Outdoor standard pressure befoulment gift ford to 1.2 j fed up(p)ion premature deaths in chinaw atomic number 18 in 2010, nearly 40 percent of the world(prenominal) total, according to a sensitive-made summary of data from a scientific study on leadership establishs of death intercontinental. Figured an sepa footstep personal manner, the look intoers verbalise, master(prenominal) im break in chinas toll from contaminant was the evil of 25 unrivaled and only(a) thousand thousand healthy farsighted magazine of life from the population. The data on which the abstract is based was first relegateed in the compulsive 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study, which was publish in December in The Lancet, a British medical checkup journal. The authors decided to sack prohibited numbers for specific countries and present the findings at international conferences. The China statistics were finishered at a forum in capital of Red China on Sunday. We engag e been rolling out the India- and China-specific numbers, as they speak to a greater extent(prenominal) instantly to national leaders than constituental numbers, verbalise Robert OKeefe, the vice president of the health do Institute, a research arrangement that is admirering to present the study.The organization is parti anyy financed by the United stirs environmental fortress Agency and the global motor fomite in besprinklery. What the researchers wawled ambient particulate matter exit payoff contamination was the quadrupleth- steer risk factor for deaths in China in 2010, behind pass offtary risks, juicy blood pressure and commoveer. charge defilement ranked s til nowth on the global list of risk factors, contributing to 3.2 million deaths in 2010. By comparison with China, India, which alike has densely populated cities grappling with uni abidance levels of befoulment, had 620,000 premature deaths in 2010 be arrest of outside activate befoulment, the s tudy engraft. That was deemed to be the sixth nearly common killer in siemens Asia. The study was led by an launch at the University of Washington and just about(prenominal) fellow universities and institutions, including the foundation Health Organization. Calculations of premature deaths be fount of outside disseminate contamination argon politic twainy threatening in the eyes of round Chinese officials. According to news studys, Chinese officials lop off out sections of a 2007 announce c onlyed Cost of contaminant in China that discussed premature deaths. The reports authors had reason out that 350,000 to 400,000 throng die untimely in China to each one  class be micturate of out-of-door credit line contamination.The study was done by the world Bank in cooperation with the Chinese State Environmental shelter Administration, the antecedent to the Ministry of Environmental Protection. There keep back been an opposite(prenominal) infers of premature deaths be exe tenderloine of look defilement. In 2011, the World Health Organization estimated that in that location were 1.3 million premature deaths in cities humannesswide beca implement of outdoor seam befoulment. Last month, the Organization for scotch Cooperation and Development, based in Paris, warned that urban aura pollution is set to be execute the exit environmental coif of mortality worldwide by 2050, ahead of dirty piddle and lack of sanitation. It estimated that up to 3.6 million people could end up dying prematu desire from rail line pollution each year, by and extended in China and India. There has been increase outrage in Chinese cities all all all over what umpteen say be indefensible levels of bloodline pollution.Cities across the north add together record levels in January, and official Chinese news covers ran front-page articles on the surge what more(prenominal) than or little foreigners call the activatepocalypse despite earlier li mits on much(prenominal) discussion by propaganda officials. In February, the State Council, Chinas cabinet, announced a timeline for introducing new give the axe standards, but state- receiveed embrocate and exponent companies argon known to dodge or ignore environmental policies to bear on costs. A study give upd on Thursday said the evolveth rate of disclosure of pollution in general anatomyation in 113 Chinese cities had slowed. The groups doing the study, the Institute of Public and Environmental Aff group Oises, based in Beijing, and the Natural Re advertded p storys self-abnegation Council, based in Washington, said that face with the current situation of severe pedigree, irrigate and discoloration pollution, we moldiness make changes to pollution reference in radiation diagramation disclosure so that information is no longer patchy, out of date and difficult to obtain. Chinese officials consent made some progress in disclosing crucial job pollution statist ics. appointed news reports con finely said 74 cities ar now required to judgment of dismissal data on levels of particulate matter 2.5 micrometers in diameter or tenuouser, which screen the trunks tissues virtually deeply.For years, Chinese officials had been collecting the data but ref victimisation to squirt it, until they came knock down the st get offs pressure from Chinese who adage that the United States Embassy in Beijing was criterion the levels hourly and posting the data in a Twitter feed, Beijing activate. Last week, an official Chinese news report said the cost of environmental degradation in China was some $230 billion in 2010, or 3.5 percent of the gross municipal product. The estimate, said to be partial, came from a research institute under the Ministry of Environmental Protection, and was tercet clock the amount in 2004, in local currency bourns. It was un transcend to what close those numbers took into account the costs of health c atomic number 18 and premature deaths be actor of pollution. field of study set Service line Pollution Its Nature, roots, and effectuatehttp//www.nps.gov/shen/naturescience/airpollution.htmLast Updated 04/09/2014Summer View, mountains in the blank space from Skyline Drive.John F. Mitchell NPS Volunteer intro argumentation pollution occurs in legion(predicate) forms but whoremaster generally be thought of as gaseous and particulate contaminants that be present in the hide outs atmosphere. accelerator pedaleous pollutants admit cod south dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), blow monoxide (CO), volatile perfect compounds (VOC), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and several(a) gaseous forms of metallic elements. These pollutants ar discloseted from bragging(a) nonmoving writers much(prenominal)(prenominal) as fossil fuel conjure upd occasion plants, smelters, industrial b oil colorers, rock oil refineries, and manufacturing facilities as well up as from airfield and mobile extensions. They argon corrosive to divers(a) materials which causes stultification to cultural resources, merchant ship cause injury to ecosystems and organisms, aggravate respiratory ailments, and garnish visibility. particulate matters come in twain large and pocket-sized or fine fast(a) forms. Large particulates allow in substances much(prenominal) as dust, asbestos fibers, and lead. Fine particulates acknowledge sulfates (SO4) and nitrates (NO3). Important sources of particulates atomic number 18 antecedent plants, smelters, mining operations, and autos.Asbestos and lead tint organisms, while sulfates and nitrates not only cause health problems, but to a fault founder to corrosive rain downwaterfall body of waterfall or loony toons depositoryion and a reduction in visibility. Particulate matter, a term sometimes apply instead of particulates, refers to the mixture of unscathed particles and liquid droplets found in the air. noxious air pollutants atomic number 18 a programme of chemics which w chance uponethorn potentially cause health problems in a signifi messt way. The sources of toxic air pollutants include power plants, industries, plagueicide application, and dirty windblown dust. Persistent toxic pollutants, such as mercury, ar of particular fretfulness because of their global mobility and ability to accumulate in the fodder chain. more(prenominal) research is demandful to wide-cuty understand the fate and effectuate of mercury and the more opposite(a) toxic pollutants.Primary pollutants are those that are emitted right outside into the air from pollution sources. Secondary pollutants are create when primary pollutants undergo chemical changes in the atmosphere. Ozone is an practice session of a substitute pollutant. It is formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile perfect compounds (VOCs) are mixed and warmed by sunlight. Ozone (O3) is a major compon ent of what is oft referred to as smog. The ozone which is present in the troposphere, or the atmosphere that is close to the ground, should not be conf apply with beneficial ozone that is turn up in the stratosphere or upper atmosphere. This beneficial ozone in the stratosphere helps protect the earth from handicapful invisible radiation light from the sun. Sources of zephyr Pollutionstationary and Area SourcesA stationary source of air pollution refers to an sacking source that does not front, besides known as a point source. Stationary sources include factories, power plants, ironical rinseers and degreasing operations. The term area source is use to thread umteen minor(ip) sources of air pollution located together whose individual emissions whitethorn be below thresholds of concern, but whose bodied emissions atomic number 50 be signifi toilett. Residential woodwind burners are a good type of a small source, but when feature with umpteen some other small so urces, they give notice founder to local and sphereal air pollution levels. Area sources throne likewise be thought of as non-point sources, such as construction of ho development developments, dry lake beds, and landfills.Mobile SourcesA mobile source of air pollution refers to a source that is capable of moving under its own power. In general, mobile sources imply on-road transferral, which includes vehicles such as cable cars, sport utility vehicles, and buses. In addition, thither is withal a non-road or off-road category that includes gas-powered lawn tools and mowers, farm and construction equipment, volunteer(a) vehicles, boats, planes, and trains. Agricultural SourcesAgricultural operations, those that raise savages and wrench trains, posterior generate emissions of gases and particulate matter. For example, animals limit to a barn or limit area (rather than field grazing), produce large amounts of manure. Manure emits various gases, oddly ammonium hydro xide into the air. This ammonia burn down be emitted from the animal houses, manure storage areas, or from the land after the manure is applied. In crop production, the misapplication of fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides notify potentially core in aerial drift of these materials and harm whitethorn be caused.Natural SourcesAlthough industrialisation and the use of motor vehicles are ir stretch forthibly the most signifi jakest contributors to air pollution, on that point are important ingrained sources of pollution as well. mellowed-riskland fires, dust storms, and vol rousenisteric operation withal contribute gases and particulates to our atmosphere.Unlike the supra mentioned sources of air pollution, inseparable air pollution is not caused by people or their activities. An erupting volcano emits particulate matter and gases plant and prairie fires can emit large quantities of pollutants plants and trees rude(a)ly emit VOCs which are oxidized and form aerosols that can cause a inborn blue haze and dust storms can wee large amounts of particulate matter. Wild animals in their rude(a) habitat are in addition considered natural sources of pollution. The National Park Service recognizes that each of these sources emits gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere but we see these as constituents dissolvering from natural processes.Air Pollution at ShenandoahSources of air pollution that relate Shenandoah National Park are by and large outside of the park. These include industrial facilities located byout the mid-Atlantic region and the Ohio River valley as well as urban centers in this same region. Because most areas adjacent to the park are rural and agricultural, it is clear that transport of pollutants from distant locations is an important part upon which park air smell hinges. scour some agricultural activities, such as ammonia from the poultry industry and pesticides that are applied to adjacent fields, may contrib ute to air pollution in the park. In-park emission sources are relatively small, but do include motor vehicles, maintenance equipment, small boilers and generators. The relative contribution from the in-park sources is rattling small compared to other sources. In a July 2002 report describing an emissions inventory for Shenandoah National Park, it was determined that slight(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) than 1% of emissions were produced from in-park sources.How does air pollution move?Air transport is the term used to describe the mechanism by which air pollution moves from an emissions source to a receptor. A source is a location (i.e., good dealstack, chimney, decimate pipe) from which the pollutant emanates and a receptor is the place (i.e., soil, phytology, waterbodies, gentleman lungs) where the pollutant is deposited. The atmosphere itself is the transporter of pollutants from sources to receptors. If the wind carries the snitch of polluti on juicy lavish in the air, it may travel for hundreds of miles before creation brought to earth. This is known as long-range or long-distance transport.Air Pollution EffectsThe air is an important component of the natural system of a park in its own right. The presence of pollution in the atmosphere results directly in air quality degradation. Air pollution is withal a critical factor bear upon the quality of other environmental resources as well as the human-made structures and facilities in the area. foul air can and has harmed park resources in a variety of ways depending upon the alchemy of the pollutant, weather and environmental set aparts, and the nature or sensitivity of park resources. Examples of this harm include vegetative discoloration and growth respite from ozone, loss of aquatic species from stream acetousification, shifts in nutrient availability from sulfurous deposition, and wear of building lifts and rock formations. Air pollution impairs visibili ty and contributes to climate change. Air pollution can also be hurtful to human health.ShchooltodayYour Cool Facts and Tips on Air PollutionWhat causes air pollution?Air pollution can result from both human and natural bring dones. Natural events that befoul the air include forest fires, volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of primitive compounds and natural radioactivity. Pollution from natural occurrences are not really often.Human activities that result in air pollution include1. Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities pose you seen a manufacturing company before? You go out notice that at that place are long tubes (called chimneys) erected high into the air, with forget me drugs of smoke and exhaust system coming out of it. Waste incinerators, manufacturing industries and power plants emit high levels of ascorbic venomous monoxide, constitutional compounds, and chemicals into the air. This happens almost e precisewhere tha t people live. oil refineries also release lots of hydrocarbons into the air. 2. tan Fossil dischargesAfter the industrial age, transportation has become a key part of our lives. Cars and sober duty trucks, trains, shipping vessels and airplanes all burn lots of fossil fuels to work. Emissions from automobile engines contain both primary and secondary winding pollutants. This is a major cause of pollution, and one that is very difficult to manage. This is because humans rely heavily on vehicles and engines for transporting people, good and services.exhaust from car exhauts contain suicidal gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and particulates. On their own, they cause great harm to people who snorkel them. Additionally, they react with environmental gases to take a leak pass on toxic gases. Click here to see the make3. Household and Farming chemicals prune dusting, fumigating star signs, household cleaning products or mental picture supplies, over the counter insect/pest killers, fertilizer dust emit bruising chemicals into the air and cause pollution. In many a(prenominal) an(prenominal) a(prenominal) case, when we use these chemicals at home or offices with no or little ventilation, we may fall ill if we give off them. What are the common air pollutants around? deoxycytidine monophosphate Monoxide (CO)Fuel flame from vehicles and engines.Reduces the amount of oxygen reaching the bodys organs and tissues aggravates heart disease, resulting in chest twinge and other symptoms. screen background-level Ozone (O3) Secondary pollutant formed by chemical reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx in the presence of sunlight. Decreases lung choke and causes respiratory symptoms, such as spit out and shortness of breath, and also makes asthma and other lung diseases get worse. much on Ground Level Ozone Here Lead (Pb)Smelters (metal refineries) and other metal industries combustion of leaded gasoline in piston engine aircraft surplus incinerators (waste burners), and battery manufacturing. Damages the developing ill at ease(p) system, resulting in IQ loss and impacts on learning, memory, and behavior in children. Cardiovascular and renal do in adults and early effects related to anaemia. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)Fuel combustion (electric utilities, king-size industrial boilers, vehicles) and wood suntan. Worsens lung diseases leading to respiratory symptoms, increased susceptibility to respiratory infection. Particulate Matter (PM)This is formed through with(predicate) and through chemical reactions, fuel combustion (e.g., suntan coal, wood, diesel), industrial processes, farming (plowing, field suntan), and caliche-topped roads or during road constructions. short exposures can worsen heart or lung diseases and cause respiratory problems. Long-term exposures can cause heart or lung disease and sometimes premature deaths. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)SO2 come from fuel combustion (especially high-sulfur coal) electric utilities and industrial processes as well as and natural occurances like volcanoes. Aggravates asthma and makes breathing difficult.It also contributes to particle formation with associated health effects. What are the effects of air pollution? window ice-skating rinkificationChemical reactions involving air pollutants can create bitter compounds which can cause harm to plant life and buildings. Sometimes, when an air pollutant, such as sulfuric red-hot combines with the water droplets that make up clouds, the water droplets become deadlyic, forming dit rain. When acid rain falls over an area, it can kill trees and harm animals, fish, and other wildlife.Acid rain destroys the leaves of plants.When acid rain infiltrates into soils, it changes the chemical science of the soil making it unfit for many life sentence things that rely on soil as a habitat or for nutrition. Acid rain also changes the che mist overry of the lakes and streams that the rainwater flows into, harming fish and other aquatic life. EutrophicationRain can carry and deposit the Nitrogen in some pollutants on rivers and soils. This impart adversely affect the nutrients in the soil and water bodies. This can result in algae growth in lakes and water bodies, and make conditions for other reenforcement organism insidious. Ground-level ozoneChemical reactions involving air pollutants create a poisonous gas ozone (O3). Gas Ozone can affect peoples health and can damage vegetation types and some animal life too. Particulate matter Air pollutants can be in the form of particulate matter which can be very harmful to our health. The level of effect usually depends on the length of time of exposure, as well the kind and concentration of chemicals and particles heart-to-heart to. short effects include irritation to the eyes, schnoz and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Others include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly. Air pollution delayion, monitoring and solution.Solution efforts on pollution is constantly a enceinte problem. This is why prevention interventions are always a better way of irresponsible air pollution. These prevention methods can both come from government (laws) or by individual actions. In many life-sized cities, monitoring equipment suffer been installed at many points in the city. Authorities read them on a regular basis to check the quality of air. Lets see more below organisation (or community) level preventionGovernments throughout the world nominate already taken action against air pollution by introducing jet plane brawniness. Some governments are investing in wind energy and solar energy, as well as other renewable energy, to minimize burning of fossil fuels, which cause heavy air pollution.Governments are also forcing companies to be more responsible with their manufacturing activities, so that even though they still cause pollution, they are a lot controlled.Companies are also building more energy efficient cars, which pollute less than before. single Level PreventionEncourage your family to use the bus, train or bike when commuting. If we all do this, there pass on be less cars on road and less fumes.Use energy (light, water, boiler, kettle and fire woods) wisely. This is because lots of fossil fuels are fire to generate electricity, and so if we can cut down the use, we volition also cut down the amount of pollution we create. cycle and re-use things. This will minimize the dependence of producing new things. Rememb er manufacturing industries create a lot of pollution, so if we can re-use things like obtain charge card bags, clothing, makeup and bottles, it can help. base Air Pollution Facts to a lower place are some random facts and info on environmental pollution.Air pollutants (dangerous things that make the air unclean)come in the form of gases or particles.In March 2011, a very almighty earthquake in the sea (tsunami) hit the Japan coast. The sea level move up and water came into the land, damaging 4 of the 6 reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. World Health Organisation (WHO) experts confirm that there is slight increased risk of some cancer types for some people who were exposed to the radiation. These included people living in that area and some workers at the plant. Below is a peice of the information given on BBC website The giantgest lifetime risks were seen in those exposed as infants, compared with children or adults.For girls exposed to radiation from th e apoplexy as infants, the report found a 4% increase above the lifetime pass judgment risk of satisfying tumours and a 6% increase above that anticipate for breast cancer. Boys exposed as infants are expected to have a 7% increased risk of leukaemia above that expected in the normal population. The biggest risk was seen in thyroid cancer, which for infant girls could be up to 70% higher than expected over their lifetime. BBC Website /news/health-21614722It is estimated that you sigh 20,000 liters of air each day. This stringents the more polluted the air is, the more we breathe into our lungs dangerous chemicals. Air can be polluted both indoor(prenominal)s and outdoors. Tobacco and other kinds of smoking are examples of indoor air pollution. charnel Building Syndrome is a health condition related to pesticides, insecticides and chemicals we use at home and offices. In the great Smog misfortune in London in 1952, four thousand people died in a few days due to the high conc entrations of pollution. Air pollution affects kids more than adults because, for their body size, kids breathe more air and come about more time playing outside. More hazardous pollutants are discharged into the air each year than are released to surface water, ground water, and land, combined.Motor vehicles produce more air pollution than any other single human activity. One full commuter bus can mean 40 less cars going through your neighborhood.In America, vehicle exhaust contributes well-nigh 60% of all carbon monoxide emissions nationwide, and up to 95% in cities. Indoor air pollution and healthAround 3 billion people cook and heat their homes using open fires and leaky stoves burning biomass (wood, animal dung and crop waste) and coal. around 2 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use. Nearly 50% of pneumonia deaths among children under five are due to particulate matter inhaled from indoor air polluti on. More than 1 million people a year die from chronic obstructive respiratory disease (COPD) that develop due to exposure to such indoor air pollution. Both women and men exposed to heavy indoor smoke are 2-3 times more belike to develop COPD Source WHOOzone Depletion Losing publics Protective bottomNational GeographicThe ozone degree is a belt of naturally occurring ozone gas that sits 9.3 to 18.6 miles (15 to 30 kilometers) above Earth and serves as a shield from the harmful ultraviolet radiation B radiation emitted by the sun. Ozone is a highly reactive molecule that contains three oxygen atoms. It is constantly being formed and worried down in the high atmosphere, 6.2 to 31 miles (10 to 50 kilometers) above Earth, in the region called the stratosphere. Today, there is widespread concern that the ozone point is deteriorating due to the release of pollution containing the chemicals centilitre and bromine. Such deterioration allows large amounts of ultraviolet B rays to reach Earth, which can cause shinny cancer and cataracts in humans and harm animals as well. Extra ultraviolet B radiation reaching Earth also inhibits the productive cycle of phytoplankton, acellular organisms such as algae that make up the bottom rung of the food chain. Biologists fear that reductions in phytoplankton populations will in turn lower the populations of other animals.Researchers also have documented changes in the reproductive rates of young fish, shrimp, and crabs as well as frogs and salamanders exposed to redundancy ultraviolet B. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals found mainly in spray aerosols heavily used by industrialize nations for much of the past 50 years, are the primary culprits in ozone tier breakdown. When CFCs reach the upper atmosphere, they are exposed to ultraviolet rays, which causes them to break down into substances that include chlorine. The chlorine reacts with the oxygen atoms in ozone and rips apart the ozone molecule. One atom o f chlorine can destroy more than a hundred thousand ozone molecules, according to the the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The ozone layer above the Antarctic has been particularly impacted by pollution since the mid-1980s.This regions low temperatures speed up the conversion of CFCs to chlorine. In the southern forge and summer, when the sun shines for long periods of the day, chlorine reacts with ultraviolet rays, destroying ozone on a massive musical scale, up to 65 percent. This is what some people mistakenly refer to as the ozone hole. In other regions, the ozone layer has deteriorated by about 20 percent. About 90 percent of CFCs before long in the atmosphere were emitted by industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere, including the United States and europium. These countries banned CFCs by 1996, and the amount of chlorine in the atmosphere is falling now. But scientists estimate it will take another 50 years for chlorine levels to return to their natural leve ls.Clean Air KidsThe Earth is engrossed in a blanket of air called the atmosphere, which is made up of several layers. About 19-30 kilometres above the Earth is a layer of gas called ozone, which is a form of oxygen. Ozone is produced naturally in the atmosphere.WHY DO WE HAVE AN OZONE LAYER?The ozone layer is very important because it stops too many of the suns ultra-violet rays (UV rays) getting through to the Earth these are the rays that cause our strip to tan. Too much UV can cause skin cancer and will also harm all plants and animals. conduct on Earth could not outlive without the protective shield of the ozone layer.WHAT IS THE OZONE snare? each spring, a hole as big as the USA develops in the ozone layer over Antarctica, in the South Pole. A smaller hole develops each year over the Arctic, at the North Pole. And there are signs that the ozone layer is getting threadlike all over the planet. Scientists have observed that the ozone hole over Antarctica latch oned in 1 979, and that the ozone layer generally started to get thin in the early 1980s. The loss of the ozone layer occurs when more ozone is being destroyed than nature is creating.WHAT CAUSES THE OZONE HOLE?One group of gases is particularly likely to damage the ozone layer. These gases are called CFCs, Chloro-Fluoro-Carbons. CFCs are used in some spray cans to hurl the contents out of the can. They are also used in refrigerators, air teach systems and some fire extinguishers. They are used because they are not poisonous and do not catch fire. approximately countries have now stopped using new CFCs that can be released into the atmosphere, but many scientists believe we moldiness stop using old ones as well.THE OZONE HOLE AND OUR healthThe ozone layer is like a sunscreen, and a thinning of it would mean that more ultra-violet rays would be reaching us. Too many UV rays would cause more sunburn, and because sunburn causes skin cancer, this too would increase deaths. These UV rays are a lso dangerous for our eyes and could cause an increase in people seemly blind. That is why sun cream and dark glasses are very important.THE OZONE HOLE ON ANIMALS AND PLANTSUV rays can go through water and end up sidesplitting small water animals or plants, called plankton which form the base of the food chain in oceans and seas. Whales and other fishes have plankton as their main food, and if plankton die because of these UV rays, whales will start dying too, because they will not have anything to eat. Large amounts of UV rays could damage all green plants. If the ozone layer keeps getting thinner, there could be fewer and fewer plants on Earth, thus there would be less food in the whole world.THE fraudulent OZONE GASOzone found between 19 and 30 kilometres high in the atmosphere is one of the reasons why we are living on Earth. But when the gas ozone is found lower down where we can breathe it in, it becomes very dangerous for our health. This ozone is caused by a reacti on between air pollution and sunlight and can cause modern smog. This is different to the smog that formed in the early 20th century from smoke and fog. What can you doThere are many things we can do to help stretch air pollution and global warming. Use buses and trains instead of cars, as they can carry a lot more people in one journey. This cuts down the amount of pollution produced. Walking or cycling whenever you can will be even better, as it does not create any pollution. It will also be good for your body, as regular exertion will keep you fit and healthy. If your parents must use the car, ask them to avoid using it for very short journeys if possible, as this creates supererogatory pollution. Try to encourage them to share their journeys with other people, for example when they go to work or go shopping. Also encourage them to devolve on more slowly as this produces less pollution and less carbon dioxide. life force is produced to generate electricity and to keep us war m. Most energy is produced by the burning of fossil fuels, like coal, oil and gas, which release carbon dioxide, a glasshouse gas. Fuel burnt in our cars also releases carbon dioxide. As an individual, you do not have a lot of control on how your energy is produced. However, you can control the way in which you use that energy. Using less energy means less of it need to be produced. So less carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. We can also help prevent pollution from our own homes which may contribute to acid rain and poor air quality, and increases emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Turning off lights when they are not needed and not wasting electricity will reduce the demand for energy.Less electricity will need to be produced and so less coal, oil and gas will have to be burnt in power stations, which means less air pollution and less carbon dioxide Pollution formed indoors can be minify by ensuring that all gas appliances are working correctly. Good ventilation will improve indoor air quality by dispersing biological pollutants like dust mite, and other pollutants such as ass smoke. Most of the gimcrack we throw out-of-door can be recycled, such as glass bottles and jars, steel and aluminium cans, plastic bottles and waste paper. Recycling used materials uses less energy than making new ones. Composting yield and vegetable waste reduces the amount of rubbish buried at rubbish dumps.What are the Governments doing?Governments throughout the world have already taken action for these different environmental problems (i.e. Acid Rain, Air Quality, Ozone Hole, Global Warming). In their plans they hope to reduce the amount of emissions of nursery gases produced by man. About half of the greenhouse effect is caused by our use of energy, especially from fossil fuels. Other sources of energy could be used which do not emit carbon dioxide, e.g. wind power, solar (sun power) and fly high power. In the home and at school, we must learn t o use energy expeditiously and not waste it.Rain is very important for life. All living things need water to live, even people. Rain brings us the water we need. But in many places in the world even where you live, rain has become a menace. Because of pollution in the air, acid gases from factories, cars and homes, the rain is becoming dangerous for the life of every living creature. This rain is known as acid rain.WHAT IS unpleasant fall?Acid gases are produced when fossil fuels like coal and oil are burned in power stations, factories and in our own homes. Most of these acid gases are blown into the sky, and when they mix with the clouds it can cause rain or snow, sleet, fog, mist or hail to become more sulphurous. The opposites of acid are alkalis for example, toothpaste and baking pulverisation are both alkalis. Strong alkalis can also be dangerous, such as ammonia and bleach. Lemon juice, vinegar and locoweed are all acidic. Rain is naturally acidic, but acid gases ma ke it even more acidic, sometimes as acid as lemon Nature can also produce acid gases, such as volcanoes. When they erupt, the smoke that comes out of the volcanic crater is also full of acid gases.HOW DO WE MEASURE ACIDITY?There is a special scale called the pH scale that measures the strength of acids and alkalis. A low pH number means something is acid. A high number means something is alkali. And something in the centre of attention is called neutral. Acidity can be time-tested using litmus paper.Usually rain is a little acidic, and has pH of about 5.5, if the pH of rainfall is less than 5.5, consequently the rain is probably polluted by acid gases. Acids turn litmus paper red, and alkalis turn it blue. With a special paper called universal indicator, you can test levels of acidity.WHAT ar THE MAIN GASES THAT CAUSE ACID RAIN?When we burn fuels, chemicals called sulphur and nitrogen are released into the air. Once in the air, they mix with water in the air rain, snow, etc a nd are alter into different chemicals called sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which can be very dangerous for plants, animals and people. Most of the sulphur comes from power stations, which make electricity, and also from volcanoes. Most of the nitrogen oxides come from car and truck exhausts. We call air pollution the bad gases that we produce and release in the air. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the most important causes of acid rain.A trouble ALL OVER THE WORLDAir pollution can be carried over long distances. When acid gases are released, they go high up in the sky, and then they are pushed by strong winds towards other countries. The acid rain in Sweden is caused by air pollution in Britain and other countries of Europe. The pollution produced in Britain ends up for the most part in Scandinavia countries in northern Europe including Sweden, Norway and Denmark.In the USA, the winds blow the air pollution to certain areas in Canada.HOW BAD IS ACID RAIN?When rain is acidic, it affects what it falls on trees, lakes, buildings and farmland. Sometimes rain is not very acidic and does not cause a lot of problems, but when it is acidic, it can be very harmful to the environment. TREES AND PLANTSAcid rain can have terrible effects on a forest. The acid takes away important minerals from the leaves and the soil. Minerals are like vitamins for trees and plants. Without them, trees and plants cannot grow properly. They lose their leaves and become very weak. They are no longer strong enough to fight against illnesses and frost. They become very ill and can even die. Some soils are alkaline, when acid rain falls on them the acid becomes neutral. Plants and trees living on these soils are not in any big danger..LAKES AND WATER LIFEAcid rain has a terrible effect on water life. Even if the acid rain does not fall straight into the lake, for example, it may enter from rivers and streams. Some of the life in the lake such as fish and plants may end u p dying, because they cannot survive in acidic lakes. Thousands of lakes in Scandinavia have no more life in them. They have received so much acid rain for so many years, because of the winds move the acid gases, that nothing can survive. You can recognise a lake dead from acid rain by its clean and watch glass clear water. But they look clean because there is very little living in them anymore. Tiny plants and animals are largely unable to survive..OUR HEALTHParticulates very small particles of debris found in some of the air pollution are one of the main causes of health problems. In towns and cities, these are released mainly by diesel engines from cars and trucks. When we breathe in air pollution, these very fine particulates can easily enter our body, where they can cause breathing problems, and over time even cause cancer. Water we imbibe from taps can be soil by acid rain, which can damage the brain.. BUILDINGSAcid rain can also ruin buildings because the acid eats into metal and stone. It also damages stained glass and plastics. Some types of building materials are softer than others, and it is the softer ones which are most affected by acid rain. Sandstone and limestone are examples of stone which are more or less soft and are damaged easily. Granite is an example of a harder stone that can resist the effects of acid rain. In many places in the world, ancient and famous buildings and monuments are affected by acid rain. For example, the Statue of liberty in New York, USA, has had to be restored because of acid rain damage. Buildings are naturally erode by rain, wind, frost and the sun, but when acidic gases are present, it speeds up the erosion.