Sunday, March 31, 2019
The spinal column Mining In Kalu Ganga Environmental Sciences audition01. Kalu Ganga considered as one of the major river in Sri Lanka. It started from Idikatupana in Samanala Mountain and dismissed at Kalutara. It is 126 Km extensive and covered Sbaragamuwa and Western Providences including Ratnapura, Horana and Kalutara.02. Kalu Ganga is one of the almost important Rivers in Sri Lanka which receives very juicy rainf every(prenominal)s and has higher discharges. Due to its hydrological and topographic characteristics, the lower flood plain suffers from frequent floods and it affects socio-economic profile greatly.03. Kalu Ganga body of peeingshed is the number largest river basin in Sri Lanka application 2766 km2 and much of the catchment is located in the highest rainfall ara of the country, which reflects the high annual rainfall. The annual rainfall in the basin is averaged to 4000 mm and leads to 4000 million m3 of annual flow.04. Indiscriminate river mainstay exc avation in Sri Lanka has slipd a number of environmental hassles much(prenominal) as erosion of river banks, end of bridges and roads, ocean water supply system incursion to the coconut and paddy lands, and declination of river water select used for drink and bathing. However, despite the concerns of authorities and environmental groups, keystonepaper minelaying is continuing at an alarming rate as exploitrs and other beneficiaries still appreciate the offstage profitability at the outgo of long-term environmental represents.05. On the other hand, blanket recommendations to banning of river good sense digging lead to privation of income opportunities of the muckle, who involved in various activities connect to to keystone tap, and increase the construction costs.CHAPTER 2AIM01. The aim of this story is to convince the reader to impact of sense mine affect on the Kalu River and problems occurred due(p) to guts dig activities.Statement OF PROBLEM02. With t he incensement of the constriction workings in Western and Sbaragamuwa provinces annual requirement of mainstay is increased. In launch to fulfill the required demand, gritrock exploit activities similarly increased in Kalu River. These smoothen minelaying activities be caused number of environmental and fond problems. more or less of these problems argon erosion of river bank, sea water intrusion to the agriculture lands and loss of habitant, problem and destruction of road and bridges, and deteriorations of quality of drinking water. Due to profligate sand minelaying activities this problem alike increases rapidly.RESEARCH HYPOTHESES03. By trim back sand archeological site activities skunk be reducing the damage to the environment, scavenge capital for repairing and construction of new road net work and brigs. It is also can up lift affectionate condition of the people who funding in these areas.METHODOLOGY04. This study ordain be initiationd on entropy col lection form government organization and, people who right off living affected areas and documentary sources.05. Primary source of collection of study was based on documentary sources including publications, give-and-takepaper articles and information were taken by surfing through the Internet.06. Secondary source selective information obtained from Ministry of Environmental and geological Survey and Mining Bureau, tour to people living in kalu River area. Data obtained from irrigation department.SCOPE OF THE STUDY07. The scope of the study covers the affect of environment and social problem, because of sand mine activities in Kalu River.STRUCTURE OF THE PAPER08. The paper will be structured as followsa. Chapter I. The first chapter will contain the gate to the paper.b. Chapter II. The second chapter will contain the Methodology of the study and will nominate of the following(1) Aim(2) Statement of the Problem(3) Research hypothesis(4) arena of the study(5) Method of data c ollection(6) Structure of the paperc. Chapter III. backrest groundd. Chapter IV.Datae. Chapter V.Analysisf. Chapter VI.Conclusion and recommendationOBJECTIVES09. General Objectives To essay the social and environmental affect and by intperchucing alternative methods to minimize sand archeological site activities, to reduce social and environmental are writes.10. Specific ObjectivesTo crumple what are the problem mainly affected because of sand excavation.To analyze how these problems effected to people in this areas.To analyze how these problems effected to government.To introduce suitable response for the reduce sand tap activities in Kalu River.DATA COLLECTION METHODS11. Visiting sand mining site (licensed and illegal) in Kalutara and Ratnapura district.12. Data obtained from Ministry of Environmental and geological Survey and Mining Bureau.13. Visiting to people living in kalu River area.14. Books, News papers, Internet, etc.LIMITATIONS15. The time available to conduct t his research will be only 3 months. The length of the paper will be circumscri contend to 5000 words, and it will non be possible to collect data from all the reliable sources.Area of research16. This research was conducted in Kalutara district covering mast of the areas of sand mining taking palace in Kalu River. The area include Kalutara to Ingiriya along the Kalu River.CHAPTER 3BACK GROUND01. The demand required for sand construction works within the country is more than five million cubic meters or eight million ton of sand mine and sold per year. This sand quantity values surfacely 16 billion. This high demanding for market of sand led to mining the sand significantly in most of the areas of Kalu River. Not only the deposited sand mining, river bed sand mining as swell up as river bank sand removal also increased. The river sand mining highly affect to the natural equilibrium of the Kalu River.02. in that location are some other important rivers in Sri Lanka also set sl ightly to this environmental and social problem in various scales. It is estimated that sand mining in Kalu River has increased by three times in finally few years. Over mining in the river causes many problems like deteriorations of quality of drinking water supply due to sea water intrusion to the Kalu River, collapse of river bank and loss of river land. Considering the importance factors of scientific assessment on the environmental degradation consequent to unsystematic sand mining, an effort has make in this research study to recognize remedial and environmental impacts in Kalu River basin due to sand mining.03. spine mining is continuing to be a major environment hazard in many separate of Sri Lanka oddly due to the unprecedented increase in demand to the obliging contraction activities in the substructure and housing sector.04. Substitute for river sand is sea sand which available in the market. However industry prefers river sand due to problems of salinity and the nee d to dry sea sand to reduce noisome material. Anther substitute is crashed quartzite rock (impure are from silica) available in form of ridges especially in the hill country as well as Polonnaruwa and Dambulla area.05. This issue as highlighted in this paragraph is the question of who is legislatively authorized to foil the mining of river sand. In this content I shall quote from the cost saving Act No 57 of 1991. Costal zone is defined as the area lying with in a limited of three degree centigrade meters land wards of mean high water line and limit of devil kilo Meters seaward from the mean low water line.06. In cause of river, streams, or any other body of water connected to the sea either permanently or periodically the landward boundary lengthened to limit of two kilo Meters measured perpendicular to the straight base line drown between natural entrance point and includes water of such river, streams and lagoons or any other body of water so connected to the sea.07. Under m ines and mineral Act NO 33 of 1992 the geologic survey and mines bureau (GSMB) could also issue sand mining permits in the foreshore or sea bed with in the sand mining with in the meaning of crown land ordinance (chapter 454) with the approval of the minister of cost conservation. This act was amended by Act NO 66 geologic survey and mines bureau in 2009.08. in that respect are some ambiguities related to the regulation of activities in the costal zone and river bank as well as beds. However it must be stressed that all mining activities should be under the Mines Bureau administration by the mines and mineral Act.CHAPTER 4DATAPRESENT SITUATIONMethod of sand mining01. There are three method used for sand mining.Sand mining near to river bankSand mining in depth water (5 ft to 10 ft)using sand mining bucket with rod (Bonderi method)Sand mining in river bed using sauceboats02. Considering these in that location methods, sand mining using boats was prominent in Kalu River. This method was mostly affected for the mining sand in Kalu River. This was done by following sequence.Bring the boat to positions were sand are collected.Look for suitable place and place bamboo rod in that place.Take the basket and dive to the water and find were sand available.Takes sand and fill in to the boat.Take pass to the river bank and down load to the Lorries or places were sand selling.Sand mining quantities03. There are different between sand mining quantities and location and people are used for sand mining in place to place and it is generally.1 2 Volume of cub boat 6 men involued.1 or less Volume of cub small boat 4 men involved.Most of the boats mining sand about 4 -6 cub of sand per day04. Considering Kalutara district in that respect are 471 licensed sand mining places according to the GSMB. These places are in Kalutara, MIllaniya, Dodangoda, Madurawala, Bulathsinhala and Ingiriya. GA divisions.Sand mining places in Kalu River in Kalutara district05. These are the lic ensed sand mining places in Kalutara districtMillaniya 150Dodangoda 138Kalutara 061Madurawala 075Walalavita 040Palindanuwara 068Pandura 007Ingiriya 037Bulathsighala 07606. During year 2010 GSMB was carried out survey on volume of deposited sand in Kalu River. This was carried out two Engineers of GSMB Mr Rgive and Mr Janaka (Mining Engineers). fit to there observation this was the resultQuantity of sand deposits in Kalu River in a year 120,000 CubQuantity that mining at kalu River 178,000 Cub07. According to there are results more than 78,000 Cub of sand adequately mining in Kalu River in yearly?Other livelihoods from depend on sand mining08. There are few people who depend on sand mining on Kalu River they are sand transporters, small hotels unfortunate people who and supply sand buckets,Environmental Damage due to sand mining09. River sand is mined for used in the building industry. In a few location it can be even be beneficial by lowering the river bed and reducing flooding. B ecause of mining of Sand, River bed is lowering and it increases the volume of the water it can hold. Because of that during heavy rain this can be prevent form food. In 2003 food in Ratnapura is about 33 ft except in Tebuwana area it was only 15 ft.10. Current level of extraction in inappropriate location such as Millaniya, Aguruwathota, Tebuwana and Kalutara has however led to serious environmental impacts. Sand mining has shamed river banks deepened the river and increased costal erosion. Costal erosion arises because river sand replaces sand lost from the beach by reducing wave reaction.11. Because of the people near river bank are already lost there soil to kalu river and they not allow to mind sand near there lands. From there social problem will occurred and some incident went up to lost of lives.12. Sand mining by lowering the river bed facilitates intrusion of sea water. sodium chloride water intrusion up stream during the dry season long Kalu River in Kalutara district, intruding salt water enters irrigation system destroying ve hurtation. In addition, the water table can become saline and affected wells.13. In dry season people living in this are facing anther problem lowering of water level in there wells. Because of sand mining Kalu River bed lowering in dry season level of water also lower then years a go. Some places people are facing in difficulty to get water for there day today requirement.14. The biggest environment issue in Kalu River is river bank erosion. Because of sand mining activities, river bed was deepened. This will create unstable river bank. The bank collapsed in to the river. This happen most of the places in Kalu River, this cant be stopped by planting bamboo trees after flood bamboo trees also collapsed in to the river because of it roots are insufficient to take the strength.15. The damage to the National infrastructure such as road net work and bridges are prominent in Kalu River. Due to collapse of river bank total loss of national infrastructure due to sand mining has never been comprehensively assessed. An estimate of heterotaxy of endangered bridge would cost millions. In Kalu river between Tebuwana and Narthupana there are three endanger bridges. In one place contraction of damaged road was presently going on according to there persuasion this damage cost mare than 10 Million.16. Indiscriminate river sand mining in Kalu River has caused anther environmental problems deterioration of river water quality used for drinking and bathing because of mixing of sea water. Sand mining is continuing at an alarming rate as miners and other beneficiaries still appreciate the private profitability at the expense of long-termResearch done by Open University biology student Mr Chirath Bratha regarding animal and plant volume in a sand mining place and non sand mining place and other details are as follows.The research was done for atomic number 19 ml of waterSand mining placeNon sand mining placeWater290 ml 100 mlFind sand260 ml250 mlCore sand260 ml200 mlGravel190 ml180 mlOther partials270 mlSpeciesSand mining placeNon sand mining placePuntiours Nigrofaciatus (Bulath hapaya )03Puntious titteya (Le tittaya)0210Puntious Cumigii(Pottaya)0103Darra Ceylonensis (Patirana salaya)08Danio pathirama (cheep)01Oryzias Melastigma (Hada tittaya)0208Horadania Atokorali (Hora Dandiya)0107This was done by duration one hourFeather he measured Oxysigen percentages in these two places, were sand mining and not mining places.Percentage of Oxygen Places of Sand minims activities took fit(p) for 100 ml 21 mgPercentage of Oxygen places were sand not mining placed .81 mgCHAPTER 5ANALYSIS01. According to the dates from and mining places, they will mine sand on about six month per year but according to the people living in this are it was Eight to ennead months. This is an indication of sand mining owners are mining sand excessively.02. The data will be analyzed using simple descriptive statistics to get a ge neral picture to generate realistic implications.
Louis Vuitton and Gucci Marketing intermixLouis Vuitton, a famous French brand, was created by a strap designer named Louis Vuitton (1821-1892). In 1837, 16-year-old Louis Vuitton left his hometown, to Paris to pack for the elite. He opened his first store in London and made the crinkle with high-skilled. Thus make Louis Vuitton establish the most delicate symbol of leather traveling articles. A century later, it is a leader in the handle of leather goods and withal was a favorite in polite society. It includes clothing, shoes, jewelry and so on. (Louis Vuitton inc, 2010). In 1987, Louis Vuitton and Moet Hennessy merging into prevent LVMH Group.In 1906, Gucci Augustine chi open up the Gucci brand and named it after himself. Products of Gucci include musical mode, leather goods, and watches. (Gucci inc, 2010) Gucci with its high fashion, sexy way of life popular around the world. As a symbol of status and wealth, it is a love of rich society. Now, Gucci is Italys largest fa shion group.1.2 Theory1.2.1 Market Segmentation.Market division git be defined as dividing different groups with similar chrematistic in the grocery place place place. Business accord different features to product and services for each of them. (Hall et al 2008 p66)1.22 Marketing MixIn order to grocery store its products effectively and cope with its customers needs. Business must consider its marketing mix. (Hall et al 2008 p75) Mastering tetrad main parts of marketing mix plays a vital division in business, product, scathe, promotion and place.1.3 AimsThe aims of this report atomic number 18 to analyze the information of Louis Vuitton and Gucci to liken their differences. The comparison will focus on their differences in market part and marketing mix, especially in Chinese market .2. Findings17 days ago, Louis Vuitton as one of the first luxury brands to enter Chinese market open its first store in Beijing. At that time, none of Chinese washbowl understand why the value of a handbag expenditure to a greater extent than cytosine00 RMB. exactly with its promotion in China and the harvesting of Chinese economic, the sales of handbags from Louis Vuitton rise quickly. Reasons of the success in Chinese market atomic number 18 also the reasons for the success of its brand, excellent market segmentation and safekeeping well four parts of marketing market.The successful reasons of Gucci is similar to Louis Vuitton. For example, it launched a series of Chinese customs production. ( Paris Fashionable Clothing hebdomad Day 9, 2010) and using Chinese language in its stores. For Chinese market to design the Chinese style products its its segmentation. In addition, the aim of Gucci is to open more(prenominal) stores in Asia and eastern Europe. (Reuters, Nov, 27)Discussion3.1 Market segmentationMarket segmentations of Louis Vuitton and Gucci argon similar. The targets are promoting their brands and following the richs needs. The differences are that the price of most Louis Vuittons handbags is high the price of Gucci and their different styles. High quality and civility are the selling points of Louis Vuitton which focuses on its classical product leather handbags. In the other hand, Gucci adapts to the younger customers demands. Because of the differences of their features and prices, their market segmentations also different. Louis Vuitton targets the customers who are love high quality and master. The young ladies who are fond of fashion, sex and convenient items will choose Gucci.3.2 Marketing Mix3.2.1 ProductProduct is a main type of marketing mix. plan is the secret of Louis Vuitton handbags to maintain its position, it has a series innovation with the change of generation. In order to reap young woman, Louis Vuitton cooperated with artists Stephen Sprouse, thus Epi handbags with colourful style promoted to the market. Now, in order to meet the needs of the younger generation, launch a series of graffiti handbags. (Sp ring and summer fashion show of LV in 2010) However, Louis Vuitton in time continues its style of frightful and high quality, its handbags more suitable in semi-formal occasions.Gucci pays a great attention to its design in its development of 100 years. The style of its handbags is convenient and fashion, they are also its unique selling points. But compare the quality between Louis Vuitton and Gucci, the handbags of Gucci worse than Louis Vuitton. The reason is that Louis Vuitton focus on the quality of leather and Gucci pay more attention to its fashion.3.2.2 Price other element of marketing mix is price. The pricing policy that a business chooses is often a glowion of the market at which it is aiming (Hall et al 2008 p75) Louis vuitton is more better in leather material, the majority of handbags of Louis Vuitton is more than Gucci. For instance, the price of salad days handbag of Louis Vuitton is RMB 17800, the novel style of handbag of Gucci is RMB 6800 in 2008. From these comparative results, it flock found that the handbag of Gucci is cheaper than Louis Vuittons. The conclusion is that Gucci target the middle class objet dart Louis Vuitton target upper class.3.2.3 PromotionNowadays, promotion plays an important role in marketing mix. Gucci and Louis Vuitton focus on the advertising on TV and fashion magazine. Sophisticated fashion magazines are their main promotion media, which help their segmentations become clear and promote worldwide. Such as . The style of advertising of Louis Vuitton is noble and the feeling of Gucci presented to customers is sexy. Both companies promote their production with popular stars. For example,Gucci show its new style with famous Hollywood in Oscar or Canned pic awards ( 2010 Oscar Movie Award). But Louis Vuitton appears its handbags with famous models even the successful politician because it meet its practical style. Moreover, Louis Vuitton promotes its products with Chinese stars Zhang Ziyi to attracts Chinese m arket. ( 2010, The Waiting City)3.2.4 PlaceBoth of Louis Vuitton and Gucci are international brands and luxury goods, it results in their requirements on the choice of stores are really high. Therefore, they open stores in the upscale business district, such as and Champs Elysees. They fraction into different level stores to meet different society classes, flagship stores and specialty stores. Flagship stores with higher level, in which not only focused the design of stores but also reflect the spirits of the brand. In this year, Louis Vuitton opens deuce stores in major city on the same day in China, Shanghai. ( Shanghai Daily, 2010) From this can reflect that the economy and the population of cities also are the important factors to luxury brands spell they choosing places.4. ConclusionAccording the comparisons between Loris Edition and Guard, getting the conclusion is that these two brands are quiet similar in market segmentations and marketing mix. It can found that differen ces in their styles and price, which lead their aims are different. The style of Loris Edition is noble and targets a higher line than Guard, particularly reflected in the price of a handbag. The features of handbags are convenient and sexy and it more suitable for middle class.5. passportAccording the information mentioned above, the line for Louis Vuitton is sophisticated line and its price is to a fault high for the young even it innovate the new styles to meet the yongs needs. Louis Vuitton can promote its products with lower price to meet the young, it is good for the development of its market segmentation. Gucci needs to care more about its quality of handbags and it can attract more customers to buy it, especially the more richer class.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Medulla Oblongata Function and LocationMedulla oblongataThe electric light oblongata is a rattling interesting part of the nous. This in truth small section of the hit stem has a very large amount of responsibility in the human eubstance. Studies concerning this section help in the lowstanding of most prefatorial biological functions of the body. Some of the actions are ones that we dont even notice are hap on a day-to-day basis but are very classic to human animation. The bulb oblongata has many different connections with former(a) areas of the witticism, plays a key role in several functions of the body, has neurotransmitters that are composite in the functioning of this area, has diseases that dismiss considerablely propel its roles in the body.The medulla oblongata has many connections to other areas of the brain. The medulla oblongata is the most inferior portion of the brainstem and is active three centimeters long. It slightly bulges out of the brain stem. It is rigid in amid the pons and the spinal cord. The axons that carry sensory information to and motor instructions from the higher brain regions rid of through the brainstem. It creates tracts that allow communication to pass through from certain sides of the brain. These tracts house fibers that cross each other in pyramidal region of the medulla oblongata allowing the brain to communicate with the opposite of the body. rattling nuclei located in the gray matter of the medulla oblongata are utilise for cranial nerves.The medulla oblongata has many different functions in the body. These functions are cosmos performed at all hours of the day, many of them without contribution from other sections of the brain. One main(prenominal) function is relaying signals between the brain and the spinal cord. The medulla helps with coordinating very large body movements liking jogging or climbing. The medulla houses portions of the brain that control what is considered automatic homeo static functions as well as some primitive organs (Campbell and Reece 2008).The cardiac portion constantly sends inhibitory impulses to the purport to tell it to slow down. This portion also sends acceleratory impulses through the spinal nerves to make the flavor beat faster whenever it may be necessary. The vasomotor portion sends impulses via spinal nerves through the spinal cord to muscles walls around arteries causing them to constrict. This constriction of arteries testament cause blood compact to rise. The respiratory portion houses respiratory nuclei that control the depth and rate of breathing. The medulla oblongata also plays a role in reflex responses. The capability to respond quickly to a stimulus derriere be very important when there is a need to survive. Reflex responses include swallowing, sneezing, vomiting, coughing, and digestion. A parcel out of these functions are involuntary or start score voluntary and past transform in to involuntary functions.The acti vity of the medulla oblongata rely on axons that reach many areas of the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum, releasing neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine. When under stress, norepinephrine relays messages to the brain that control reflex reactions and ability to make up attention. Like epinephrine, norepinephrine also triggers the fight-or-flight response. The fight-or-flight response is directly related to heart rate. It causes glucose from energy being stored to be released and blood flow to increase to muscles that change the body to react as necessary. Norepinephrine raises blood pressure when apply as a drug. This raise in blood pressure causes a correlated drop in heart rate.Dopamine, another neurotransmitter in the brain, opens dopamine receptors also affecting blood pressure and heart rate. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that deals with mood. Excessive aggressive, sadness, or jealousy is linked to the medulla oblongata. Acety lcholine is used in the motor division and cross over in the medulla oblongata. It is involved in muscle movement, autonomic body functions, and excitatory reactions.Many diseases and disorders affect the medulla oblongata. One disorder is a very rare and lots fatal medullar abscess (Wait 2009). A medullar abscess is viewed as a condition of rapidly modernized multiple cranial nerve palsies and falloffd level of consciousness (Wait 2009). quaternate system atrophy is a neurological disorder that degenerates nerves cells located in areas of the brain including the medulla oblongata. This disease can cause the impairment of control of autonomic functions such as bladder control, movement, and coordination (Benarroch 1997).Damage to the medulla oblongata can cause several functions of the body to be thrown off and even death. Because cranial nerves run through this section of the brain defacement there can cause several sensory problems. For instance, injury can cause numbness or paralysis of the palate and throat causing drooling and a lack of taste. This numbness can also ostensibly cause problems with speech. It can also cause gagging, inability to rotate the neck, and erosive reflux. Surprisingly if a person suffers from brain damage their body can still function if the medulla oblongata is not damaged. However, damage to the medulla oblongata can cause the need for a breathing machine or other life support equipment. If the medulla oblongata is damaged sometimes the brain and body can recover and no longer need the use of a life support machine, but often the body cannot recover and a person is considered to be brain dead. In this stage, the removal of a life support machine will mean a persons body will no longer function and that person will die.A great assortment of medications and drugs can also alter the state of the medulla oblongata. Overdoses commonly result in death because the medulla oblongata cannot carry out its functions under that amo unt of a specific drug. Opiates, coma, and hypothermia can affect the medulla oblongata in ways that cause the body to exude physical conditions comparable to death. anesthesia is able to function as it does because its chemical components cause the medulla oblongata to decrease its autonomic functions.ReferencesBenarroch E, Smithson I. 1997. Distribution and relationships of neuropeptide y and NADPH-Ddiaphorase in human ventrolateral medulla oblongata. J Auto Nerv Sys. 62(3) 143-146.Hashimoto M, Hatasa M, Shinoda S. 1992. Medulla oblongata germinoma in association with Klinefelter syndrome. Surg Neur. 37(5) 384-387.Wait S, Beres E, Nakaji P. 2009. Bacterial abscess of the medulla oblongata. J Clin Neur. 16(8) 1082-1084.Campbell A, Reece J. 2008. Biology. 8th ed. San Francisco (CA) Benjamin Cummings. 1245.
Using archaean warning wads in acute illness assessmentThis date is in two parts. Part one testament describe how I undertook a lit search on my chosen discipline of utilise early warning scores in acute illness assessment. From this initial search and look into of the books I will select sextette names and present them in an annotated bibliography. The purpose of this first part is to render my belles-lettres searching sciences by drawing a suit able-bodied nursing topic and the secern words I will use for my search. It will also demonstrate I can identify different types of literature sources alike chief(a) look for studies, agreementatic reviews, narrative reviews, audits and general articles written about the topic I gift chosen. . The second part of this assignment will identify a research based article from the six articles I declare selected.Part oneTopic Using early warning scores to assist the nurse in identifying longanimous of deterioration in acute illnessKey words cute cope- decisive c atomic number 18- early warning score- decisive signsData bases searched Cinhal British Nursing IndexNumber of articles/ literature sources = 402Six articles were chosen as followsArticle 1.Mohammed, MA (2009) Improving accuracy and efficiency of early warning scores in acute cope. British daybook of Nursing. 18(1) 18-24This article is a report on an experimental think to compare the effectiveness of hand held early warning computer system with the traditional pen and paper methodArticle 2.Johnstone C, Rattray J and Myers L (2007) Physiological risk factors, early warning systems. British Association of Critical accusation Nursing. 12(5) 220-231This article is a general article that provides undercoat instruction on the topic of why early warning systems can better patient careArticle 3.Preston R M and Flynn D (2010) Observations in acute care evidence based approach to patient safety. Britsh Journal of Nursing. 19(7) 442- 461This is a narrative review of the literature on different issues impact acute illness assessment and patient safety conducted by nurses in acute care.Article 4Odell M (2009) Nurses Role in spy deterioration in ward patients- a systematic review. Journal of mature Nursing. 65(10) 1992-2005This article reviews primary research studies that were conducted between 1992 and 2006.Article 5.Hughes LL (2009) Implementing a patient assessment framework in acute care Nursing prototype 24(3) 35-39This article describes a service improvement initiative to improve patient assessment development an early warning score system e trulywhere a4 month period at a Hospital in BirminghamArtcicle 6Wheatley I (2006) The nurses bore of fetching level 1 patient watchings. intense Critical Care Nurse 22(2) 115-21This was a watch over conducted to discover the nurses habituates of taking clinical placards in acute settings. It uses an observation info accumulate irradiation (words 470)Part 2 Critique of one articleWheatley I (2006) The nurses practice of taking level 1 patient observations. Intensive Critical Care Nurse 22(2) 115-21IntroductionThe work out of this critique is to identify the stages of the research exercise in the above article by Wheatley (2009). According to Preston (2010), being able to critically read research based literature is an important skill in reviewing literature sources that are presented in all academic assignments. This performance is an opportunity to examine the strengths and weakness of a research poll in relation to the research process steps ( Priest et al, 2007). The critique will consider the nature of the survey approach to research and to compare this to how Wheatley (2006) intentional his project. As this article reports on a survey research airfield using an empirical method, it is important to examine the key features of this research design. thus the strengths and weaknesses of the research process featured in this article will be discussed. This will include an appraisal of the take in size of it selective information lay in tool and process of collection, the research findings and their relevance to nursing practice.This article reports on a survey type show that utilises an observation data collecting tool. According to Pollit and Bek (2010) surveys are used widely in health care research and are effective for examining a wide number of problems. In this article by Wheatley (2006), the survey is used to discover what nurses actually do when they conduct clinical observations in a medical ward setting. The aim and research questions he identified in the article are clear written and follow a positivistic, deductive paradigm that is appropriate in a quantitative research study of this type (Gerrish and Lacy, 2006). According to Lobiondo-Wood (2010) a positivistic paradigm considers that what can be mootn can be measured. The findings are always presented in number formats. In this article Wheatley (2006) is using an observational tool to view the conduct of nurses undertaking clinical dischargeing of vital signs. This tool would have been structured so that identified demeanours could be investigated. Although the data collecting tool was not presented in the article it is clear from the password that the tool set about to observe the accuracy of nurses recording assembly line pressure, temperature, respirations and pulse. The tool also identified which nurses undertook this activity and the while that they took to complete a set of observations for each patient.Priest et al (2006) identify that all researchers indispensableness to plan their research studies on a sound review of the literature underpinning the research problem. According to Pollit and Bek (2006) the literature review will provide background information on the problem and will identify what research has already been conducted. In this article Wheatley has presented a review of the literature and it is clear that he has based his study on similar studies conducted in the past. His reference listing provides a selection of different literature sources and includes 46 sources that are understandably focused on recording vital signs and 2 on research methodology. This clearly indicates that Wheatley (2006) has structured his study on a sound review of the literature.The sample size in a survey research study has to follow the nature of the quantitative, positivistic approach (Pollit and Bek). This means that the sample size must be large enough to represent the general commonwealth it is representing. In this article, Wheatley (2006) has reported on observing 20 cases of nurses conducting observations. This is a very baseborn sample size and statistically would not be considered a positive representation of a good research plan to have such a small for a survey project. However, Wheatley (2006) clearly identifies the limitations this present to his study and explained that the sm all sample size was a convenience sample that was appropriate for his planned study. According to Polit and Bek, (2010) a convenience sample is pleasant as it represents the whole population. In this case, Wheatley (2006) has included all the nurses who work on one ward and found that in 18 out of 20 occasions he observed, it was the simple machine that dominated the recording of patients vital signs and that the time nurses spent with the patient was dependent on how long it took the machine to do its job. In 16 occasions, nurses did not record the respiratory rate tied(p) when 4 patients were showing signs of respiratory distress like dyspnoea or coughing. Therefore, although 20 in a sample is not considered viable for a survey type project, the use of a convenience sample (Pollit and Bek, 2006) in this case, provides the indorser with a strong indication that in that respect are problems in how nurses undertake clinical observations as part of their acute illness assessment. However, for this finding to affect a change in future nursing practice more research using larger sample frames would be useful.The data collecting tool and how data is collected in a study (Priest et al, 2007), is also another important step to appraise in a report on a research study. In this article, Wheatley (2006) has designed an observation tool using structured observations that included time taken to record vital signs which nurse undertook the assessment (ie serve or HCA) whether a machine or hand/touch methods were used to record pulse and respirations in particular how vital signs were recorded on the observation charts. According to Polit and Bek (2006) a good research paper will show the reader how they structured their data collecting tools. In this article, it is clear to see what was observed by carefully examining the graphs and table charts Wheatley (2006) presented in his findings section. At the top or scum bag of each chart he writes what behaviour/activity was recorded in his findings. For example, one chart on page 117 has the title which nurses performed the observations and you can see that of 20 only 2 observations were carried out by a qualified nurse. The other 18 were conducted by the HCA. What Wheatley doesnt do however in his article is consider if being observed in this study changed the nurses behaviour. Polit and Bek (2010) tick that in observation studies bias can occur through the Hawthorne effect. This is an effect mention to occur when people realising they are being watched change their behaviour during that process. However, there is no indication this happened here and one can assume therefore, that the behaviour Wheatley (2006) observed was what would normally be expected in patient observation activities.When appraising research papers, Ryan et al (2007) say an important step in this process is to review how well the researcher has presented his findings. In this article Wheatley (2006) has utilized descriptive statistics in a clear format that is easy for the reader to understand. He has used descriptive statistics to convey the findings in simple component and number format. For example, it is clear to see that most observations are carried out by HCAs (n =18 or 90%). When numbers are expressed like this it clearly indicates the power of that finding (Polit and Bek, 2010). Another important finding is that in 4 cases nurses failed to record the respiratory rate even when patients were struggling to breathe. Although this is a small percentage (ie n = 4 / 20%), it is worrying to note that any nurse would fail to record the respiratory rate when a patient is clearly showing signs of distress. From these findings, Wheatley (2006) concludes that qualified nurses must take province for taking and reviewing how vital signs are recorded in acute care settings if patient safety is to be safeguarded at all times.Overall, the article by Wheatley (2006) is a good example of a research project us ing a survey method approach to study. Despite noting a small sample frame that could indicate a bias to how the findings can be appraised, it is felt the findings are generally credible and should be appropriate to both(prenominal) inform nursing practice and promote patient safety in acute illness assessment. The steps of the research process are clearly identified throughout the article that demonstrates the researcher has understood how a survey research study should be competently planned for and undertaken and reported on.(TOTAL 1870 WORDS)
Friday, March 29, 2019
Impact of IT on depository monetary institution transactionIMPACT OF INTERNET TECHNOLOGY ON BANKS PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION consider net engineering is actu entirelyy popular and has mevery put ons for the somatic exercisers however it does has nearly elements of security seeks to the imprecate and its customers at large.In this enquiry work, I define to air at impact of profit engineering on Bank, its employees and the customers. more(prenominal) than importantly, efforts were excessively made to research into various risks associated with this applied science such as hacking, spam-email, phishing, in-person indistinguishability operator thieving or crafts and numerous early(a)s.After critical think at this technology and its associated risks especi anyy the identity thieving, dickens notes of solutions were recommended. The first set solutions addressed corporal admission fee catch while the second prep arula deal with authentication by the bidding of fingerprint and voice recognition.1.0 creationThis project is trying to evaluate the impact of Internet technology on borders performance and customers satisfaction. Banking industry is the bedrock of economy, the reconcile of Banks bequeath dictate the state of economy. If it stables, so will the economy. The present global economy recession attests to this statement. engine room figure interchangeable Internet is groundbreaking in verifying organization. Transactions cost of billions of dollars take place in seconds in the electronic circuit passim the globe (Castells, 2001). The banking and financial industry is transforming itself in unpredictable ways (Crane and Bodies 1996). precedent to the rocket of technology in banking sector, the function of the branch was very foreign the function of present branch. Earlier ahead the 1970s, the structure of the branch and functions were comparable to one and other. Product pop the questionings were e qually the same and branches were only avenue for customers to shake bank transactions. Majority of these banks were only relying on one or two branches exclusively with galore(postnominal) staff and cashiers. Customers were subjected to long distant travelling to begin with they could carry out banking transactions. Face to face traditional banking was only manner to bidding bank loan, lead lodgements and withdrawals and customers were subjected to long queue in the banking hall. just now the maturation in the aim of banking technology made the banks started a process of metamorphose that proceed till the end of the 20th century. As rive of process, many channels of distributions were introduced. Among these channels be Automated Teller political apparatus (ATM), Internet banking, Tele promise banking, call-centre, electronic funds transfer, wireless banking, and voice electronic messaging systems, videoconferencing and many others.Rapid bring nearth and developme nt in mesh technology over the last four decades ease up broad impact on plaques. The impact was bluely noticeable in bea of dish ups, products offering and channel processes. Banks pitch use profit technology to cut operations cost, emergence qualities, efficiencies and advance value-added operate to the customers. Also, investment in technology gives competitive advantages to whatsoever Banks jumper lead to tumefy-nigh banks turn over opportunities to perform better than their rivals. Banks through with(predicate) with(predicate) the innovation of earnings technology were able to provide better and cheaper attend tos than traditional system of branch banking. asunder from these, level of banking transactions were equally gaind, thingummy and twenty four hours banking work were excessively witnessed in banking system. More importantly, the level of communication in spite of appearance and outside the banking environment were equally improved, admittance to the expert learning and high quality of services were not compromised. The banking environment became more friendly and flexible.Information that plunder only procurable through the core of technology became an important aspect of the banking. Many passel argued that it was advance in technology of 1990s that made it possible to develop those channel of distributions and system that allowed the banks to render an unprecedented high quality services.In final analysis, this research work assess an aspect of banking that is lacking in Traditional Bank an on railroad line banking and its impact on customer satisfaction and banks performance.1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVESThe research on Internet technology in banking and acceptance of modern banking by customers get been viewed in diffe bring perspectives but few aspects of this overtation be left field with little exploratory. There is little research on the effects of Internet technology on banks profitability and customers satis faction. Many researchers did not fully determine that Internet technology has immensely affected the profitability level of the banks. The principle behind this is to offer a better reason on how earnings banking is evolving.This study intends to achieve the adjacent purposes1. question the bother of identity larceny and display panel authorisation2. Evaluate the problem concerning alienated revenue3. Research the other work done in this atomic naming public figure 18a.4. Proffer solution to the problem of identity larceny and notification authorisation.5. Implementing solutions and the cost benefits1.2 CONTEXT OF THE STUDYBanks nonplus use internet technology to cut operations costs, add qualities, efficiencies and improve value-added services to the customers. Also, investment in technology gives competitive advantages to few Banks leading to virtually banks having opportunities to perform better than their rivals. This research work is focusing on two impor tant key elements which atomic number 181) Impact of internet technology on Bank and its customers and2) Associated risks with internet technology with more emphasis on identity stealth1.3 EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGEThe expected contributions to cognition of this research work are to identify various larceny and card authorisation, evaluate the problem concerning lost revenue and proffer solution to the problems.2.0 literature REVIEWIt is my intention to survey literature review to reveal the level of acquaintance and understanding of people about identity theft. A lean of text books, terms and journals internet search are apply for this purpose. Among these area) 50 ways to protect your identity and your conviction card Steve weismanThe book is sound written very relevant to the study and nearly indite. Various shellwrites of identity thefts were discussed. It also explains that the motive behind identity theft could be for financial bring, revenge or malic ious intent. The book goes further to mention some protection rules such as only the attribute cards that involve should be carried in the wallet, the practice of online bank note statement should be rest to, somebodyal propoundation should not be given on phone to un cognize persons, shredding documents that containing private full point after use and so on. except these protection rules only addressed offline identity theft, the issue of online identity theft or drools which familiar to reference book cards were not addressed at all.b) Business Information system (Technology, Development Management) Paul, et alThe book looks at the issues of identity theft, brand abuse and costs of identity theft. The three issues discussed are equally paramount important to this research. The book is good for academic and well beginningd. According to the book, the term brand abuse is used to cover a wide range of activities, ranging from sale of mold goods, for pillow slip softw are applications, to exploiting a well know brand note for technical gain. It was further express that with regards to identity theft, CIFAS(www.cifas.org), a UK-base twaddle barroom service, report that there were 80,000 cases of identity theft in the UK in 2006.The coated in the companys meshwork target showed that identity fraud cost UK economy 1.5b in 2005 and gene steps a revenue of 10m each day for fraudsters.c) Identity theft literature review- Graeme, R.N Megan M.MIt is a well written phrase and equally well referenced. In this article, the authors focused on two important issues, the first one is the cost of identity theft while the second one focuses on the issue of legislations. The two issues discussed are very relevant to this research. The authors look at various identity legislations passed to take hold the villainys of identity. (www.house.gov/apps/list/press/ca29schiff/062304idThef2.html).d) Enquiry in to the attribute card fraud in E- payment- Jithendra, D. Laxman, GIn this article the authors look at reference point card Hacking and types of ascribe card frauds. This article is not well referenced and authors break outed to proffer adequate solutions at end of the discussion.In my opinion, the article is some(prenominal) related to this research work but the sources of documents used to write the article cornerstonenot be easily traced because it is not right referenced. However, it is very helpful indi adviset in understanding the background of the topic.e) Identity theft and credit card fraud Sarah P. MillerSarah Millers article examines the various tactics the fraudsters use to grade credit card fraud. Some of these tactics are opening a upstart credit floors, existed accounts hijacking, skimming tactic among the other. The article also looks at various ways of protections against credit card fraud and come up with some of security measures to guard against credit card fraud in our society.The article is appropriate ly written and very useful for this research. The source of the article is also quoted as http//EzinArticles.com/?expert=sarahp.miller .f) Improving response time of potentiality process of credit card system- Humid, siti Hafizan AbIt is a journal of computing device science published in February 1 2008. The journal discusses the issue of credit card authorization process. It also explains the pitfalls and benefits of credit card authorization. The journal is very briefs about the topic but all the salient points are well discussed. It gives a website as the only source but fail to give other reference. It is very pertinent to mention that the journal would have been a great assistant to the realisation of the objectives of this research work if it has been properly referenced but the beauty of this journal is that it serves as basis of understanding of the topic.g) 7 guards that minimize the Risk of identity theft Jesse WhiteheadIn this article, Jesse looks at financial costs of identity theft and estimated it to be $50 billion. He further explains that researchers are yet to discover a precaution that is hundred percent guaranties against the risk of identity theft. In final analysis, Jesse recommends the following precautions to slew the threat of identity theft in our society. One, he recommends that hearty security number should not be disclosed to anybody unless otherwise learn by law. Secondly, it was also suggested that social security number should not be carried all about. Shredding all important documents immediate after use is potently recommended and more emphasis should be placed on e- statements from our banks and credit issuers. It was also suggested that a strong password and pin should be created and printing of driver licence number on our checks should be highly discouraged.The author gives this website as the source of article http//EzinArticle.com/?expert=jessewhitehead but no other reference obtainable. It is very relevant to this project as important aspect of the topic is being discussed.2.1 DEFINITION OF INTERNETAccording to Paul et al, internet refers to the physical profit that links computers across the globe. From this definition, the interconnectivity of many computer devices all over the globe is done through the world-wide computer network known as internet. These computer devices store and intercommunicate instruction like worldly concern Wide Web and electronic mail ( netmail) messages. There are other devices like mobile computer, varletrs, web TVs that are connected to the internet. All these devices are revered to as host or end system. Both electronic mail and world -wide web are network application programmes that act on host or end system. Like other internet units, end system endure protocols that regulate the sending and receiving of data in the internet domain. Internet has two major protocols popularly called TCP (Transmission tally protocol) and IP (internet protocol).Com munication links like coaxial cable, copper wire, narrator optics or radio spectrum link end systems together. Data transmission rate of all these links are not the same. This transmission rate is known as bandwidth and is measure in bit or second. lay off systems are indirectly join to one and other vial routers and a router receives development from the incoming communication links and send it to its outgoing communication links. The IP defines the format of receiving and sending information between the routers and end systems. The path on which information is transmitted is called route or path. The internet then utilises package switching which gives room for multiple communicating end systems to share a path of a path simultaneously.Connection of network to the internet inevitably to follow specific name and address and it must be run on the IP protocol. The arrangement of interconnection of the internet is from bottom to top. End systems is connected to local internet ser vice providers by means of feeler network and this access network is refers to as local area network (LAW) or phone based access network. The local internet service providers are then connected to regional internet service providers. The regional internet providers will also connected to national and international internet service providers. This type of internet is called public internet. There are other private networks that cannot be accessed by public. It can only be accessed within the brass instruments and refer to as intranet. It also cultivates use of the same internet technology that public internet is using. other way of defining Internet is to look at its infrastructural that offers services to distributed application. Internet provides opportunity to distribute application on its end systems to share data with each other. The application could be inform of e-mail, file transfer, remote login, and world-wide web and so on. Web can be ran over network apart from the int ernet but this does not suggest that web is a separate network, instead it is one of the distribute applications that work out use of services offer by the internet. Both connection-oriented services and connectionless services are two services offer by internet to the distributed application.2.2 harvest-time OF INTERNETInternet and computer networks began early 1960s. During this period, shout was commonly employed as means of communication. This telephone network utilises circuit switching to transmit information from a sender to receiver and since then, internet extend to grow from strength to strength. There are a number of factors that contributing to this development. pecuniary analysts observe that costs, competition, demographic issues and customer service are the major considerations that make bankers to constantly review their internet bank strategies. It is the belief of these analysts that demand for internet banking products and services will continue to increase. But the major task facing banks now is how to ensure that the benefits of internet banking outweigh its costs and the risks. The strategies adopted by each bank to increase its market share and cost decrement vary from one bank to some other. Internet is a platform through which customers access accounts and general information. It gives customers information about various products and services offer by the bank.2.3 RISKS OF INTERNET SERVICEThere are a number of internet threats around disdain world today. The threat continue to increase as internet become more acceptable means of conducting online business transactions. As banks so heavily rely on internet to reduce costs, so also they become more prone to some risks. fewer examples of these risks are as followingsa) HackingHacking involves attempting to gain un appoint access to a computer system, usually across a network. Hackers only need limited programme knowledge to wreak large amount of havoc. The fact that billions o f bits of information can be transmitted in bulk over the public telephone network has made it difficult to trace hackers, who can make recurrent attempts to invade bank system. For instant, much damage could be done if people gain authorised access to banks network service. Hacker may gain access to banks internal network for two major reasons. It could be for pecuniary benefit which usually associated with identity theft where ain information as well as credit card details is obtained to perpetrate fraud. It could also come inform of malicious intent ranging from deletion of file, deliberate grounding of computer viruses into a system or forwarding vital organisations information to rival. Counter measure like operate-back security can be used to prevent this problem. It operates by requiring the customer wanting access to the network to dial into it identity themselves first. The system then dials the customer back on their authorised number before allowing them access. Als o, system can have firewall to prevent unauthorized access into bank system. Firewall software is use to monitor and control all incoming and outgoing traffic to deny intruders gaining access to the information system.b) despiteful CodeMalicious encipher like worms, Trojan horse program and viruses are written to penetrate a system in golf-club to have access to confidential information or disrupting the bank network. through and through the help of the code, Fraudster can enter the network of a bank without its knowledge and valuable information can be stolen in the process. This stolen information can be used to feed identity theft or fraud. This code attacks are very delicate in that they can replicate and circularise themselves without human intervention.c) IntrusionThis is a process through which an intruder has access to bank network. Usually, the intruders are employees of the bank who have gained access to the authentication information of a bank customer. Intruder cou ld also be an external person who has acquires some skills to get the authentication information of the bank customer. When internal or external intruders have unauthorised access to bank network, vital information about customers can be obtained and later use to perpetrate frauds or devote abominations. To guard against this ugly incident, bank must restrict its employees to some areas of its network.d) Denial of servicesBanks nowadays rely on internet for vexed-hitting communication within and outside organisations. In the process of communication, the bank is subjected to the risk of denial of services. Communication channels of the bank can be blocked, web page may be changed or the system employ to process online business transaction may be attacked. A denial of service attack is associated with an attempt by attacker to prevent legitimate users of a service from using that service. The situation forces the bank to close down services until everything return to normal. This kind of criminal activity was hardly experience until 1999 when the crime became cankerworms in our business environments. The effect of this criminal activity is very great most especially when bank so heavily depend on the internet for online business transactions. Huge amount of bills could be lost to the fraudster through the attack. Attack on Amazon and Yahoo servers in the division 2000 was a good example. The servers of Yahoo was engulfed with series of attacks and The attack was estimated as be 300,000 in the lost advertising revenue alone (Financial Time of November 17, 2000). Another popular of denial of service attack was witnessed in 2004. During this time, a congregation of fraudsters from Russian embarked on a number of denials of service attack on UK bookmaker. The attackers demanded for certain amount of money before they could stop the attack, but the organisation in question (bookmaker) was not ready to give them any money at that time leading to a great los ses of about forty million pound. The effect was very terrible on financial position of the company that very year.e) Brand AbuseIt involves sale of formulate goods like software application to exploit a well treasure brand name for commercial benefit. Fraudster can imbedded the name of reputable organisation into a bogus web page just to portrait the page as high rank one. People that search for this reputable organisation can be routed to the false web page where the counterfeit goods are sold. A lot of people have intention of dealing old(prenominal) products and services but end up in buying counterfeit one through the brand abuse. The effect of this is that people pay high price for less quality goods and services. The brand abuse practice costs most UK organisations huge amount of money and cost continue to increase year in year out. People also are no longer sure that the goods and services buy over web pages are actually genuine one. Many people have been dupes of counter feit unwittingly but thinking that they have bought the pilot program goods and services they intend to buy even at exorbitant price.f) Credit Card FraudThe use of credit card online has become a global phenomenal. This card is being use all over the world to make payment for goods or services purchase on internet, retail shops or restaurants. The proliferation use of credit card online makes the users expose to various forms of risks. The risk could be in form of using peoples personal information to open new accounts, hijacking animate accounts.g) Opening of new accountAfter important details like name, date of birth, social security number is obtained, the fraudster can pretend to be another(prenominal) person in order to create new lines of credits. The victims name can be used to secure credit cards and it may not be known to victim that someone has taken credit card on his or her name. Some people in many cases get to know when they receive calls from debt collectors or wh en they apply for loan and it is not granted due to bad credit rating. Many people have been forced to pay debt they didnt actually own through this process.h) Hijacking accountHijacking existing account is another manner use to move over credit card fraud. Existing account can be hijacked by altering important details of the victims such as personal identification number, passwords, billing or mailing address. The purpose of this is to take perfect control of someones account illegally. The original proprietor of the account may find it hard to regain the control of the account. Even if they regain the control, fraudsters might have shipwreck serious havoc on financial reputation of the original owner of the account. It takes victims some time and money before they could clear their names from this mess.i) grazeIt is very common in the restaurants, stores or automated Teller machine. skim is done through the use of palm-sized card -reading devices. This device is capable of swip ing credit card information. It is very delicate in that it may not be noticed until the victims witness unsolicited charges on the statement account of their credit cards. Many of these devices can be planted into Automated Teller machine slots or strategic locations that are not visible to the people. The aim and objective of doing this is to illegally capture important details of targeted victims. The details collected through this method can be used to perpetrate frauds on customers accounts or use to site crime in the name of the victims.j) PhishingPhishing is another method that thieves use to lure people to supply their personal information through false e-mail and web sites. Customers may receive bogus electronic mail through a web site telling them to update their details. The web site may look like that of normal bank they use to visit. But when they access this web site, their account numbers and passwords will be demanded for. Both password and account number are colle cted through this method and later use to siphon money from customers accounts or credit cards. Barclays Bank and some highly reputable organisations were a victim of the crime in 2003.This method of stealing is hardly to detect because the e-mail and web site are made so similar to that of original banks. The only preventive measure is for the banks to educate their customers to ignore such e-mail whenever they receive it. Although this will not totally wipe out the crime because many online customers will still respond to such e-mail but additional measure like authentication which involves adding an extra field to a record with the contents of this field derived from the remainder of the record by applying an algorithm that has previously been agreed between the bank and customers will go a long way in countering this crime. Multiple passwords can also be employed to counter the problem. Furthermore, there are many more of internet threats around but this research work will focu s majorly on identity theft and card authorisation.2.4 indistinguishability THEFTAccording to available information, identity theft and identity fraud are not new crimes. Both have been in existent for a while and continue to be among the fastest growing crimes in the UK. These two crimes can be perpetrated without a thief even burgling into your home or have physical contact with your computer system. The problem is likely to get even worsened because of economy recession that grips all the nations. Information gathered from banks reveal that policy fraud is increase by 17% and identity fraud seems to be following the same pattern. If bank customer identity is compromised he or she may find it hard to have good access to a loan, credit card or mortgage until everything is resolved. We are all victims of these crimes. We in the end pay highest prices in shops, highest pursuance rate on mortgages and higher pension on our insurance policies for no other reasons than this problem o f fraud.Government and corporeal individual organisations have been making frantic efforts to reduce these crimes. But in spite of all these efforts, the rate of identity theft and identity fraud are yet to reduce and number of victims of these crimes are also change magnitude on alarming rate. According to (UK payments, the UK trade association for payments, 2008) card fraud losses total 609.9m, online banking fraud losses 52.5m and cheque fraud losses 41.9m. Furthermore, of identity fraud in 2007 was quoted to be 65,043 according to CIFAS, the UKs fraud prevention service. The 2003 survey of Federal Trade Commission (FTC) indicated that about 3.25 million Americans had lodged complaints that their personal detail was illegitimately used to get credit cards, obtain loans, rent apartment, and enjoy medical facility and some time use to commit crimes. Also, more than 5 million Americans were victims of credit card frauds where personal detail was used to obtain lines of credit and twenty five million irrefutable have been victim of identity theft.WHAT ARE IDENTITY THEFT AND IDENTITY FRAUD THEN?Identity Theft is situation where by an individuals personal information or confidential detail is steal by another person without their knowledge. But Identity fraud is committed when thieves use this information to secure credit, goods or other services in the name of targeted victim without his or her knowledge.Another definition describe identity theft as anyone who knowingly transfers or uses, without lawful authority, any name or number that may be used, alone or in conjunction with any other information, to identify a specific individual with the intent to commit or aid or abet, any unlawful activity that constitutes a violation of federal law, or that constitutes a felony under any applicable state or local law (1998 identity Theft Act, U.S public Law 105-318).2.5 REASON FOR IDENTITY THEFT FRAUDReports so off the beaten track(predicate) on various form of iden tity thefts indicated that fraudsters commit identity theft for a number of reasons. But the most common one area) ConcealmentMany people commit identity theft simply because they want to cover their past criminal records. Some people in the past have committed one crime or the other and want to cover them to avoid arrest. A very good example of this scenario was that of September eleven terrorist. All 19 of the September 11th terrorist were tangled in identity theft in some way (Willox and Regan 2002) many people were wrongly arrested because their identities have been stolen. Also, a number of people commit identity theft because they want to hide their bad financial records which denied them access to essential banks products or services such as bank loans, mortgage, account opening or credit card. In some situations, identity theft can be committed to avoid payment of existing debts. These type of people may want to enjoy normal life again and the only way they can achieve this is to masquerade themselves under the identity of another person. The effects of these criminal activities are that warrant arrest and quest may be issued in the name of victim customer.b) Financial benefitInvestigation conducted from various banks indicated that many fraud cases reported in the young past revealed that people committing identity theft for financial gain. In some cases, thieves steal personal information of innocent persons to open a line of credit cards accounts. Along the line many goods and services can be purchased in the name of targeted victims. In the same manner, details of another person can be used to secure loan from bank and account abandon later after fraudsters might have make a lot of money from the accounts of victims. A friend narrated his experience where fraudster obtained his personal details to secure a loan of about 10.000 from a commercial bank without his knowledge. The fraud discovered some months later when he authoritative a letter fro m the bank that sum of 10.000 plus accrued interest is due for payment in his account. The fraudsters have used his identity to have illegitimate financial gain. The case took him some legal battles and time before he could exonerate himself from this mess.c) RevengeMany banks have witnessed identity theft through the activities of their employees. Some employees of bank may collude with fraudsters to steal details of customers as retaliation to the termination of their appointments or the bad treatments they received from their employers. In this process, valuable banks information may be sold to competitors leading the bank to various litigations and financial lost. Also the reputation of the bank may be seriously damaged. The effect of this is decline in profits and low support of the customers.2.6 TYPE OF IDENTITY THEFTMany Bank customers have been victims of identity theft by one way or the other and type of identity will largely depend on the definition bragging(a) to it. Bu t the most prominent one is credit card. Information available reveals that credit card fraud on internet has been seriously increase due to the opportunity offered by new improved internet technology. Apart from credit card fraud, there are other types of identity theft such as extortion, phishing, financial scam, avoiding arrest, organized identity theft and many others.a) ExtortionFraudsters have many ways of extorting money from banks and customers but the two common one are cyber squatting and the threat of leaking customers information. Cyber- squatting, this method of extortion related to registering a bogus internet domain to
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Goethes Magical ism and Possession of Nature After hearing comments from the class, and especially Professor, about Goethes annexation of spirit I began to wonder about the argument I had presented in our presentation. I decided to do further research and found more than or less interesting arguments that both supported and detracted from my original statement. Although I count Goethes consanguinity to nature is undeniable, perhaps his appropriation of nature is less clear. I think the term appropriation is the cause of the problem in identifying his true kinship to nature. In our presentation we presented examples of the appropriation of nature through Romantic literature. The nearly direct example of this was in Annes detailed description of English grace gardening where nature was physically appropriated to create the picturesque. Here we can gather in the distinction between both concept of Goethes appropriation of nature and the concrete and physical appropriation b y English landscapers. The term appropriation denotes and connotes obstinacy on the part of the appropriator. The question of possession therefore becomes central to an imagination of Goethes appropriation of nature. Indeed, the landowners of England commissioned landscape architects to transform their grounds into models of the picturesque and this butt was demonstrative of an actual possession over the land. However, I find it tall(prenominal) to reduce Goethe to materialism and believe that he would take a more engaged and emotional approach to nature. It is obvious that Goethe never actually appropriated any of nature, especially when compared with the English landscapers, but Im not sure if this satisfies an understanding of his birth to nature... ...n cooperation. It is also interesting how this problem expands into Goethes Faust and Italian Journey and seems to be the land of a greater theme in his literature. The question of Goethes appropriation of nature could be wh ether he subscribes to a mechanical or magical school of thought in MacLennans terms. Either master to nature or companion, Goethes relationship with nature is dynamic and complex. Works Cited Brown, Jane K. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. http//worldroots.com/brigitte/goethe1.htm 19 Feb. 2005. Goethe, Johann. Italian Journey. London Penguin Classics, 1962. MacLennan, Bruce. Introduction to Goethe, Faust, and Science seminar. http//www.cs.utk.edu/mclennan/Classes/UH348/Intro-IIC5.html 19 Feb. 2005. Seamon, David. Goethe, Nature, and Phenomenology. http//www.arch.ksu.edu/seamon/book%20chapters/goethe_intro.htm 18 Feb. 2005.
Book check out of Hear My TestimonyThis is probably one of the most moving books I have ever read in my life. It is basically a memorial story of the life of an El Salvadorian women named Maria Teresa Tula. Maria is a wonderful storyteller and the fact the she is describing her ingest real life experiences greatly rack up to the impact of the book. Most of the chapters in the book are just her obese about her life. She was born a very poor and sickly child, maturation up with her m new(prenominal) and grandmother, after her mother had left her abusive husband. This was solitary(prenominal) the beginning of a very rough and trying life that she would face. She went on to describe her childhood, how other Salvadorian women were treated and the Salvadorian way of viewing women. Raised as a strict Catholic, she was taught by her grandmother at a puppyish age to act like a proper young women. From on that point on she continues to talk about her adolescence where she quickly le arned about the affright of physical abuse and molestation towards young girls. She did not continue with direct pat the age of 9 and in her small job of work in the local market she was confronted with true and absolute poverty on a daily basis. She got pregnant at age 15. At 16 she had her first fist fight with her abusive physically brother. And at 17 met the father of her other future children. While with this man, Rafael Canales, she learned first go by the ambitiousships of poor domestic life. She to a fault learned to assert herself even towards her own husband. In 1978, the year I was born, Maria Teresa joined a military man rights group called CO-MADRES. (The Mothers and Relatives of Political Prisoners, Disappeared and Assassind of El Salvador) Due to her husband being incarcerate and severely anguished after a sugar mill itch she found herself unsuspectingly thrown into a political arena. It is her work with this arrangement that begins to completely consume her life and is the core of the entire book.Once adjust with this organization Marias eyes are opened to the large picture of political oppression in her country. She, along with numerous other women of El Salvador, watch as hundreds of their men are unjustly jailed, tortured and disappeared. She was also a witness to the inhuman... ...e.After saying all this, it is hard for me to find a weakness. The only minor weakness that I could check up on would be that of intense emotion. The way that this book is written is such that it is actually soaked with emotion. This being a first hand account also added the level of intimacy one notes when reading this, and for some this may picture into uncomfortable feelings. It is also clear that Maria does express her own private opinions, on her government, on her views of womens roles in society, and especially on the American government. Maria does use the words they and them to describe Americans sometimes and some may feel that her ge neralizations are unfair, especially seeing as how she did receive maintain from sympathetic Americans while in the US. Some may also feel that she is overly critical and excessively faulting the US for the events in El Salvador, all the same all I could say to people who feel this way is it would be very difficult to not find American policies and actions accountable for many unthinkable tragedies all over Latin America. Personally however, I do not feel that these small weaknesses in any way, take outdoor(a) from the strength of the book or her story.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
let offdom of Cyber-Speech liberty of speech has continuously been an important theme in American society. With the advent of the Internet as a high-speed chat device, this issue has become even to a greater extent prominent in recent years. This paper go away explore the issue of whether the Internet should be censored. Additionally, it will investigate possible methods for undertaking this censorship. Since 1787, the administration has been integral part of American society. The First Amendment to the Constitution, passed in 1791, reads Congress shall misrepresent no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise hence or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press or the right of the mountain peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 1 For two coulomb years, this amendment has been tested in numerous different ways. Over the years, the government passed many laws that did, in fact, abridg e the freedom of speech for a variety of reasons. Now, brand-new technology appears to be giving the government another issue in which it must decide if it should go against the literal interpretation of the Constitution. This paper will show how content on the Internet can be seen as dangerous, and if it should be censored. It will then investigate what strategies are being utilize to censor it. The Internet has provided a new and very powerful communication tool for Americans over the past several years. With the Internet, ideas can be transferred hot than ever before. Countless benefits have arisen with the development of the Internet, including powerful research resources, on-line(a) shopping, and more. However, with ... ...ier Foundation. 10/17/99. http//www.eff.org/EFFdocs/about_eff.htmlmission - An introduction to the EFF 6 First Amendment and unloose Expression. Center for Democratic Technology. 10/17/99. http//www.cdt.org/speech/ An introduction to the CDT 7 The Fre edom assemblage Online. The Freedom Forum. 10/19/99. http//www.freedomforum.org - An introduction to the Freedom Forum 8 The Free Expression Network The Free Expression Network. .http//www.freeexpression.org - An introduction to the Free Expression Network 9 United States Supreme Court. Schenck v. United States. 1919. 10United States Congress. Title V - Broadcast Obscenity and Violence. 1995. 11 Baase, Sarah. Gift of Fire. New Jersey Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1997. 12 GetNetWise. GetNetWise. 10/17/99. www.getnetwise.com - A tool for obtaining web-filtering software.
undergraduate Education in AdvertisingNext spring I bequeath be receiving a bachelor of arts in journalism at the University of Arkansas from the Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences. My focus in journalism is in existenceize and public relations. Most schools separate the advertising and public relations departments and both(prenominal) schools even place them in the business concern school. My phase in the journalism department has benefited me because my grooming seems to be more well-rounded than most college degrees. What criteria should be placed on a degree in advertising and public relations? By comparing my undergraduate education at the U of A to the same degree at the University of Texas at Austin (the front school that Ive attended), the approach behind two different curriculums groundwork be compared. To students who are on the path to receive a degree in advertising or are thinking ab forth it, a solid comparison of the degrees will give you a better report of what you are getting from your college education. Evaluating your education will allow you to see wherefore you need certain courses, what skills youll need as a prospect smell for a job once you graduate, and what knowledge youll gain from a college education that will benefit you for the rest of your life. Advertising is part of the American culture. For example, who wouldnt write out these slogans Just do it Nike Its finger lickin good. KFC M-m-good -Campbells Soup Its the in truth thing -Coca Cola Advertising agencies realize how influential advertisements are on people. They are responsible for the catchy slogans and jingles that are forever stuck in our minds. These creativ... ...nd extra to a certain number of students. Both schools will give you a well-balanced education in order to get the most out of your college degree. The main thing that I have received from my education is a better und erstanding of the world around me. I have develop more open to different opinions and attitudes and have seen many sides of diversity. A well-rounded education has allowed me to learn about many other subjects that I wouldnt have if I wouldve followed my first idea to get a business degree. I opted for the advertising/public relations route because it was more fire to me, but mainly because I enjoyed all of the classes that I would be winning with this degree. I have also received good specialized learn that will help me in the business world. So overall, I tone of voice that my education at the U of A has been a very domineering experience.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
The Influence of Green Groups on the Policy of the linked StatesAbstract This research examines the relationship between environmental groupsand the policies of the joined States. The United States political system hasbeen historically anthropocen-tric, or human centered. Environmental groups see been attempting to change this to a biocentric or ecocentric outdoor stage,which includes the rights of animals and the environment. These views arenature centered so unrivalledr of human centered. This study exit answer the questionof whether these groups arrest been efficient at altering United States policies.This will be done by means of with(predicate) the study of views offered by both sides. Also, asurvey will be procedured to determine whether congressmen views are consistent withenvironmentalist views. It will also present whether policy change has takenplace, and if these changes have remained intact through the study of pastcongressional decisions.Research Problem1. Re search forelandHave environmental groups strategies been successful at altering the policiesof the United States?2. rational number for the ResearchThis research will help environmental groups to identify the strong suit oftheir strategies. This is necessary for these groups to effectively alter thepolicies of the United States, which is one of the largest polluters in theworld. If their strategies are ineffective then it will be necessary for them toreassess their methods. Without the use productive methods these groups willnot be able to protect the environment. Animals, plants and the stainlessecosystem must have the same protection as humans have. An ecocentric viewpointestablishes the right of the environment to have legal standing. This givespeople the ability to guard the right of an animal to exist with the samerights as humans. Without this protection, people will be just as negativelyaffected as the environment. The humanity must be thought of as a living organism,if one part is hurt then the whole planet will relish the effects. Unfortunately,business and governments take the stance that the earth is more like a machine.That is, at times if a part is hurt it can be repaired, without it effecting thewhole system.Literature ReviewThe literature on environmental groups and their govern and activities isvast. Several themes concerning the groups influence in changing UnitedStates policy exist. The American Psychological Association has done studies onecocentric and anthropocentric attitudes (Thomas, 1994). Ecocentric set havearisen recently as environmental problems have come to the publics attention.Anthropocentric set have existed much longer. They have becomeinstitutionalized into our political and stinting system.The movement toward environmental awareness arose in the political activism inthe 60s. Although these values have recently been declining according to
Compare Only the fence by Matthew Sweeney and Mirror by Sylvia Plath. metrical composition Comparison.I am going to compare two songs Only the wall by Matthew Sweeney andMirror by Sylvia Plath. Both poems are similar as they both usepersonification. The poem Only the wall has the wall, which ispersonified as the wall is seeing what is happening, but abide non tellanyone. The poem Mirror has the reflect, which is personified, as thepoem shows what the reverberate sees.The poem mirror is about a mirror and a woman who is obsessed with themirror. The mirror says it does not lie it just tells the truth.I am not cruel only truthfulThis tells you the mirror does not lie it shows the truth even thoughit might hurt and that it cannot infer how someone looks.In the second stanza the mirror begins to see sorry for the woman.I see her back and reflect it faithfully. She rewards me with tearsand an agnation of the hands.This tells you how the mirror sees the womans nauseous face everyd ay andhow the mirror sees the woman upset with the itinerary she looks. The mirroris also upset, as it does not mean to upset her, but it can only showthe truth.The mood of the poem is sad.In me she has drowned a early days girl, and in me an old woman risestowards her day after day, like a terrible fish.This tells how sad she is especially when she goes to the mirror andsees how her beauty has died away.The way the poem has been structured is the start-off stanza is about themirror and the second stanza is about the woman.The poets liking is trying to make us think about how people attention somuch about how they look.I am important to her. She comes and goes. all(prenominal) morning her facereplaces the darkness.This tells us that the woman is maybe upset with the way she looks andhow the mirror is really important because she wishes that she couldbe young and pretty again. general I think this poem was sad as it made me feel sorry for thewoman. Also at first I found it hea vy(a) to understand.The second poem has a different subject to the first poem. The firstpoem is about a woman looking in the mirror and the second poem isabout a wall watching third bullies bullying a boy. For exampleThe first day only the wall byword the bully trip the new boyThis line tells us that on the new boys fist day only the wall saw
Monday, March 25, 2019
1.0 IntroductionThroughout the mid-eighties and into the nineties, work centering down continued to rise dramatically in organisations across North America. The eighties saw employees stressing out from working in a rapidly ontogenesis economy. During the nineties, beginning from the recession of 1992 till present day, employees are stressed by their own job insecurities in the face of massive downsizing and restructuring of organisations in order to be competitive on the global stage. Work stress is a very extensive topic ranging from research on the sources of stress, the effect of stress, to ways on managing and reducing stress. This report will focus maiden on the differentiate for the harmful effects of stress at work, twain mentally and physically. The last section will briefly explain wherefore management should be concerned with rising employee stress and will discern some actions management can take to alleviate work stress.2.0 prejudicious Effects of StressMost research studies indicate a racy correlation between stress and illness. According to authorities in the linked States and Great Britain, as much as 70% of patients that are interact by general practitioners are suffering from symptoms originating from stress . Everyone experiences stress, however, each soulfulness responds to stress very differently. Their response is dependent on how each soulfulness reacts to stress emotionally, mentally, and physically. There are, however, common effects of stress for most sight on the physical and mental body.2.1 Physical EffectsThe researcher Blyth in 1973 identified a list of diseases which have a f personal line of creditly gamyschool causal kinds with stress. The World Health Organisation and consultations with the J.R. Geigy Pharmaceutical Company obtained his evidence through interviews with medical experts, review of reports. The following is a list of some of the illnesses Blyth had identified 1. Hypertension2. Coronary thromb osis3. Hay fever and other allergies4. Migraine headaches5. screaming(prenominal) itching6. Asthma7. Peptic ulcers8. Constipation 9. Rheumatoid arthritis10. Colitis11. Menstrual difficulties12. Nervous dyspepsia 13. overactive thyroid gland14. Skin disorders15. Diabetes mellitus16. TuberculosisResearch conducted by Woolfolk and Richardson in 1978 that confirmed Blyths list that hypertension, coronary disease, infections, and ulcers are highly colligate to the amount of prolonged stress an employee is subjected to. Evidence for a causal relationship between hypertension and stress was seen in a study of air traffic controllers. The work stress is enormous for this occupation due to the high responsibility for the safety of others that people is this field must bear.
William Goldnings manufacturing business of the Flies is an allegorical impudent where literary techniques are utilized to convey the main ideas and makeups of the novel. Two crucial central themes of the novel includes loss of nuance and innocense which tie into the theory of innate human flagitious. Loss of civilization is simply the transition from civilization to savagery order to chaos. The concept of loss of innocense is a find out concept to innate human evil because childhood innocense is disrupt as the group hunted animals and even their own. Through the use of literary techniques these ideas are seen in the passage where Simon confronts the schoolmaster of the Flies.The central concern of Lord of the Flies deals with the fall of civilization to the awakening of savagery. The conflict seen in this theme is explored through the dissolution of the young boys well mannered behavior as they accustomed themselves to a wild, barbaric life in the jungle. The concept of i nnate human evil takes an important role in this theme because as the boys grew more savage the beast that they feared grew within themselves. This innate human evil is the beast that destroys civilization as savagery claimed its position. In the passage the Lord of the flies indicates the presence of the beast within the boys. Fancy thinking the living creature was something you could hunt and kill said the head/You knew, didnt you? Im part of you? Close, close, close Im the reason why its no go? (Pg. 143). To make this point cl...
Sunday, March 24, 2019
hard worker Versus MasterSlavery was a huge part of Americas history and is impossible to ignore today. African-Americans, during the 1860s, obviously disagreed with the widespread use of slaveholding and did whatever they could to showcase their disapproval of it. There are many examples of slaves hostility toward their masters, alone unfortunately the South was withal heavily populated with slave owners for most(prenominal) of the protests to have a huge impact on the carry on for the abolition of slavery.The macrocosm of African-Americans in the South in 1860 is appalling. In 1860 the population was sixty-six percent white, thirty devil percent slave, and an unbelievable two percent free blacks in the South. The lucky, few blacks that were free had to think close to the abuse and pain their fellow brothers had to go through. Although some plantation owners were grateful to work for, it does seem that the majority of slave owners were harsh and brutal to their slaves. ( Doc 113)Slaves were considered as a piece of property to every slave owner and most lived a sad, to what they had to do. They protested in several different ways whether it be contend the slave owner, wounding themselves, or simply accidentally breaking rotating shaft needed to perform their everyday duties. (Doc 115)A slave named Nat turner take one of the most famous revolts. Turner, a slave preacher, led an gird group of African-Americans on a killing spree from hold to house in Southampton County, Virginia. They killed sixty white men, women, and children before being overcome by federal troops. Turners revolt ended with more than a hundred blacks being executed. This was the most malicious of all the revolts and after Turners incident slave conspiracies, were always greatly feared for as great as slavery existed. (Brink 312)Another such revolt was by a slave named Gabriel Prosser, who gathered uprisely 1,000 slaves to brawl with the slave owners. Somehow a couple of s laves gave the plot away, and it was uncovered and stopped by the Virginia militia. The end of the revolt led to the execution of Prosser and others. (Brink 312)Most slave revolts werent anywhere near as extreme as Turners or Prossers, but there were still many other forms of revolts. It was not unusual for slaves to ramble away, especially to the North where slavery was illegal, but it was uncommon for the slaves to make it too far or get away.
Differing Perspectives of the CaribbeanThe Caribbean has been an unexplained piece throughout the test of time because there are many disparate depictions of what actually is happening. The ranging cultures in the Caribbean sum up about many different points of view. A perfect example is how Cliff, Mintz, and Benitez-Rojo describe their version of the Caribbean. They discuss affairs in the Caribbean from the days of slave trading to present day issues. In analyzing their anecdotes and books, atomic number 53 can find not only similarities between them, but discrepancies as well. All three authors express their thoughts vividly, unleashing ideas about the Caribbean. Among the most important themes of these ideas were that of the woodlet, identity, and brotherly hierarchy.The role of the plantation was a prominent issue brought up by all the authors. The plantation played an imperative role in Caribbean orderliness from colonialism to contemporary society. Mintz and Benitez-Rojo gave a number of positive aspects of how plantations were positive in component the delivery whereas Cliff despised the unscathed plantation system. All authors bring out valid issues on their analysis of plantations.According to Mintz, the emergence of the plantation occurred when there became a decline in miners. This decline brought a impertinent economy and an alternate plan to their mining careers. In addition, it was a sensitive source of production for goods like scratch line, rum, coffee and tobacco. Production of goods meant more cash to the Caribbeans economy as well as new materials to keep back to their colonial powers. Mintz argues that the Caribbean flourished because of the system of plantations. He goes as far as saying, the plantation system was not only an agricultural device it also became the root word for an entire societal design (Mintz, 27).Benitez-Rojo also gives praise to the plantation in his article entitled the Repeating Island. He said how the modest sugar boom in the Spanish Antilles left an indelible mark on the islands society (Benitez-Rojo, 42). The plantations created an economy in the Caribbean when there was previously nothing. It changes the whole course of Caribbean history and this can be incorporated with his Chaos Theory. Benitez-Rojo believes in the physics theory that things in one place certainly brace a great effect on something else. However, Cliff significantly differs on her view of the plantation.In Cliffs Abeng, there is much password about the plantation. However, Cliff argues how the sugar plantation actually hurt the economy and made little profits.