Saturday, August 31, 2019
Writing Portfolio The 2001 biopic/drama film Ã¢â¬ËA Beautiful MindÃ¢â¬â¢, directed by Ron Howard is a prime example of a text in which visual and verbal techniques are used to develop the personality of a character. An important job for the director of any film is to establish a framework and personality for the protagonist. Ã¢â¬ËA Beautiful MindÃ¢â¬â¢ is no different, and visual and verbal techniques are used effectively to develop the personality of John Nash.But because Ron Howard is dealing with a very complex character in the form of a paranoid schizophrenic mathematician, his personality is forever changing and the differing film techniques achieve this. As this film is a biopic/drama drawn into one, the viewer follows NashÃ¢â¬â¢s life over a number of years. Nash faces many tricky dilemmas and the way he deals with these situations are conveyed to the audience, using these film techniques. Nash (who is portrayed by Russell Crowe) changes drastically throughout the te xt, because he suffers from paranoid schizophrenia.Director Ron Howard uses the technique of Ã¢â¬ËcharacterisationÃ¢â¬â¢ to adapt his personality in different ways. Throughout the text, the viewer is introduced to several Ã¢â¬Ëimaginary charactersÃ¢â¬â¢, who are in fact delusional figures created by Nash. The first component of the Ã¢â¬ËcharacterisationÃ¢â¬â¢ technique is when director Ron Howard chooses to introduce these characters. Often injected at great times of stress for Nash, the delusion characters normally create further dispute between Nash and his real life companions.An important stage of the text is just after the climax, where Howard chooses to include and remove NashÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend Charles (in the form of the actor). Nash is preparing a bath for his baby son, while wife Alicia is outside tending to the washing outside. But because Nash suffers from schizophrenia, he is delusional and believes his friend Charles is watching the baby. For the viewer, all that is witnessed is the baby lying in the bath, crying itÃ¢â¬â¢s lungs out as water seeps over its head. NashÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is developed negatively in this scene. For the viewer, Nash is developed negatively because of these delusions.The delusions put his baby sons life at risk, and also cause a further rift between Nash and his wife Alicia. In earlier scenes, NashÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Charles was in fact present to the viewer in the form of the actor (portrayed by Paul Bettany). The effort to include the actor in these earlier scenes is a bid by the director to create the same realism for Nash, as for the audience. But in later scenes, the removal of Bettany and other cast members changes the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective of this protagonist. As the actor is no longer present, the viewer is forced to side with Alicia in thinking John Nash is delusional.The viewer here, is easily able to pin point the affects that paranoid schizophrenia has on Nash, and other sufferers of th at disorder. Characterisation is important, as in these later scene his personality is changed into a very confused man. The confident, charming and intelligent John Nash of Princeton University is instantly transformed personality due to the including and removing of key characters. These key characters not only include Charles, but also his niece Marcee and Special Forces Operative William Pacher. Dialogue is another technique (this time verbal) which is important in developing the personality of character John Nash.Director Ron Howeard opts to portray Nash as an arrogant and scornful outsider in the opening scenes of the film. During these stages, dialogue is crucial to develop this personality. Ã¢â¬Å"There must be some mathematical formula for how bad that tie isÃ¢â¬ , Nash statesto a fellow student on his first day at Princeton. While later, he criticises his co-recipient scholarship winner Martin Hansen by announcing Ã¢â¬Å"There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t one seminal or innovative ideaÃ ¢â¬ in either of his pre-prints. These quotes are just two extracts of dialogue from the early scenes of the text which develop this arrogant and scornful personality.As the text continues and his problems with schizophrenia are developed, the idea of Nash being an outsider is put in place. Another form of dialogue is important in the closing scenes of the text. NashÃ¢â¬â¢s personality has transformed remarkably from his younger days. In his elder years, he is back teaching at Princeton. Nash is a much more mellow man in these scenes and dialogue is again used as a technique to develop this personality. After being nominated for the Nobel Prize, Nash concludes during his reception speech. Ã¢â¬Å"Perhaps itÃ¢â¬â¢s good to have a beautiful mind, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s an even greater gift to discover a beautiful heartÃ¢â¬ .This piece of dialogue is essential in reflecting the more mellow character that Ron Howard chooses to develop. In earlier scens, Nash is arrogant, scornful and p re-occupied to solve an innovative maths formula. Combined with his schizophrenia, this results in Nash being regarded as an outsider. In these times, he is greatly supported by his wife Alicia, as she deals with his mental disorder also. By Nash saying Ã¢â¬Ëan even greater gift is to have a beautiful heartÃ¢â¬ , proves that does identify the most important thing in life, which is his family.His eternal love for Alicia and their son, is more important than solving mathematical formulas, and his dialogue re-iterates this changed persona. No longer is Nash a scornful outsider, and his great love for Alicia (in which he again displays) is seen more favourably by the viewers of the text and develops a nicer personality of Nash. All respect to Russell Crowe, who portrays the life of a paranoid schizophrenic fantastically, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the crucial visual and verbal techniques implemented by the director that implement this. NashÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is troubled and he is presented as d angerous during the bath scene with his son.By the removal of actors playing the delusional characters in the film, the viewer is truly able to see how disdurbed Nash is because of his illness. While the dialogue is unsed in the opening an clothing scenes to change NashÃ¢â¬â¢s personality from an outsider, to a more open and affectionate man. NashÃ¢â¬â¢s personality in the earlier scenes, is probably related to schizophrenia in general. People who suffer from the illness are often felt alone and compainionless. Ron HowardÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to truly reflect the persona of a PSD sufferer is important. In later scenes, Nash is drastically changed and no longer scene as an outsider.This transformed personality is the result of careful and meaningful dialogue in the test. This would relate to Nash being much softer in the closing scenes towards both his wide and the wider society he lives in. This re-iterates the importance of language techniques and how they can be used to show a cha racters position amongst a community. Nash who in the beginning is established as an outsider, becomes a much more balanced man , involved in the Princeton community. Dialogue is just one of these techniques used to develop the character of John Nash effectively.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Structuralism is a mode of thinking and a method of analysis practiced in 20th-century social sciences and humanities; it focuses on recurring patterns of thought and behaviour ? it seeks to analyse social relationships in terms of highly abstract relational structures. Structuralism is distinctly different from that applied to Radcliffe-Brown? it involves more the bio and psychological aspect of human studies rather than social structures. Claude Levi-Strauss was the one to pioneer structuralism; he suggested that cultural phenomena such as myths, art, kinship systems and language display certain ordered patterns or structures. With these, he believed that the structure of the human mind could be revealed. He reasoned that behind the surface of individual cultures there must exist natural properties common to us all: innate structures universal to all man. Levi-Strauss focused his attention on the patterns or structures existing beneath the customs and beliefs of all cultures. Methodologically, Strauss drew his models from structural linguistics, analysing forms of social activity as though they were languages. In other words, the things a society does, the way people in this society act, is compared to language; behaviour is acted out unconsciously as is grammar in the case of language. Therefore, societies differ just as grammar differs between one culture and another, but what Levi-Strauss sought was the universal/common structure behind it. He believed that while the surface phenomenon may vary, the underlying ordering principles are the same. Levi-Strauss believed that basic thinking occurs as sets of contrasts. All cultures think in to terms of opposites so as to classify-meaning we must be able to distinguish between things. For example, life, death; spirit, body; black, white; red, green (stop and go) ? these words alone do not carry much significance; they have a meaning and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s it ? basic facts. We take the words as they are by use of external references from what society acknowledges to it to be. A pen is not an eraser because society has accepted it to be a pen. Levi-Strauss argued that culture is to be understood as a surface phenomenon which reveals the universal human tendency to order and classify experiences and dynamics. He compared peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s language to the?Ã rulesÃ¢â¬â¢ that govern society, in that the governed are largely unconscious of what they know. He compared speech Ã¢â¬â the use of sounds and rules, mainly in the form of sentences to the ideas and behaviour that result from the application of largely unconscious social rules. Members of a society are much more likely to be conscious of their actual ideas and behaviours than they are of the deeply structured rules that make these ideas and behaviours possible, but the ideas and behaviours of a given group of people, according to Strauss, can only be understood once the Ã¢â¬Å"deepÃ¢â¬ structures in their minds can be discovered. He says that human responses are largely dissimilar, and that the surface structure is what will consequently show different cultural behaviour. In T. O. K. , we are currently discussing language, mind and meaning ? we covered the same man, Noam Chomsky, the same man mentioned in the book. He pursued the same line of inquiry in linguistics as Strauss. Chomsky believes that the human brain contains a language system base before birth, but ? goes to seedÃ¢â¬â¢ if not stimulated after birth. All babies are programmed to all phonetic systems but are channelled into particular language groups on socialization. In other words, a child who has Danish parents will eventually end up speaking Danish unless brought up elsewhere. Structuralism is often criticized for not being able to prove something through hypothesis testing and validation. Strauss makes unprovable assumptions about humans, and some people find it hard to believe the concept of universal structures. Structuralism also tends to ahistorical, thus not accounting for the way history effects the present.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Marketing - Essay Example This eventually resulted to creating a need for a good financial market for banking and finance in which the bottom line would be to stimulate needs for certain product or service offerings. This area has become so competitive in which the resulting activity leads to the creation of competitive rivalry. In short, it is important to consider that the presence of new market entrants, power of supplier and buyer and advancement in technology has significantly created an essential force leading to competitive rivalry (Ireland et al., 2007; Hitt et al., 2009). Porter therefore is right on specifying some factors that may essentially lead to the creation of competitive rivalry. Thus, he emphasised that there is a need to go for competitive strategies. This is what the financial market has essentially applied to the extent that there is a point to include economic policy measures just to minimise the presence of competition in the market (Lindbeck, 1973; Lancaster and Reynolds, 2005). The b uilding societies and banks The Building Societies Association (2011) presents some major differences between building societies and banks which include building societies as mutual institutions, are not companies run by their shareholders, and the issue on the limit of proportion of funds. These differences bring forward to some major advantages and even shown in some studies revealing that building societies have outperformed banks implying that mutual organisations may outweigh those stock organisations (Valnek, 1999). There are underlying reasons for this and one of the most significant is the inclusion of rights and privileges for members to receive the right information they deserve to have. The next most important thing about building societies is that they are not considered companies which are highly controlled by shareholders who are influential to maximise profits for increase amount of dividends. The point of this is that there will be low operating cost and other signif icant privileges that will ensure advantage on opportunity cost. In fact, it was found that building societies remain to have constant rates in deposit and mortgage (Heffeman, 2005). This emphasises that building societies are indeed not under pressure of its stakeholders which means further that the needs of consumers are greatly catered to the fullest. The limit of proportion of funds on the other hand would mean further that compared to banks, building societies are highly secured for investment and this is an opportunity for consumers or investors to go. Harpenden Building Society HarpendenÃ¢â¬â¢s company website revealed some of important information about its operation which leads to having a better view at its current trends in the market (Harpenden Building Society, 2010). Harpenden is known for its place in the UK building societies. It significantly belongs to the rank of 52 renowned UK building societies because of its 20,000 members having more than 25,000 accounts. As ide from this, Harpenden has no debt because it eliminates its chance for borrowings on the money market. Another good thing about the financial performance of Harpenden is the upward spiralling growth of its deposits and mortgages. Harpenden is also recognised by
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
ABORTION AND EUTHANASIA - Essay Example There are different theories established by many philosophers about termination of pregnancy and there are different laws about terminating a pregnancy. In some countries terminating a pregnancy is illegal while in other countries it is legal (Warren, 828). There are mainly two types of beliefs about abortion and some people believe that abortion should be prohibited on moral grounds as it is like killing a person while others believe that abortion should not be prohibited as it has nothing to do with morality and it is necessary for society, sometimes, to avoid unwanted situation (Warren, 832). Those who advocate for prohibiting abortion believe that abortion is killing a fetus before birth which is an act of murder on both human and moral grounds. They are of the opinion that the abortion can only be allowed in exceptional cases like when the life of mother is at stake or the pregnancy is a result of rape or forced sex or any similar situation. Those who believe that abortion shoul d not be prohibited in case argue that besides danger to motherÃ¢â¬â¢s life and pregnancy as a result of rape or forced sex there are many more reasons which influence the decision of abortion. Sometimes women conceive due to failure of contraceptive measures and they are either not ready or not capable of bringing up a child and birth of a child can be a burden on them. On other occasions the woman who has conceived can be poor, disabled, under-age or unmarried and is not able to bring up a child. In those circumstances, if she is prohibited for abortion it becomes a burden for her whole life. They also reason it as it should be the discretion of the woman to decide about her life and the baby. The fetus cannot be considered as a person as it does not have any characteristics of personhood such as sentience, emotion, reasoning, communication capability, self awareness and morality. Similarly, they cannot be considered as a human being as they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any characteristics of a human (Warren, 833). Moreover, the galloping population of the world can also be controlled to some extent by legalizing abortion because in the countries where abortion is not legalized people have to bear the burden of unwanted children which become a burden on humanity in many cases. Therefore, abortion must be legalized all across the world to reduce not only the burden on women but also on humanity. Abortions can be controlled and late abortions should be avoided unless it is not very essential and danger to life of the mother. An Argument that Abortion is Wrong - Don Marquis Abortion is term which people neither wish to think nor discuss about it, but it does not undermine the importance of the fact. By not thinking or discussing the horrible reality of abortion cannot be avoided. There is a mixed response about this overwhelming reality and some people think that abortion is a ground reality and essential for human society while others think that abortion is a violent a ct of killing an unborn baby and this act is neither human nor moral. Those who oppose abortion describe it and act of dismembering or tearing apart or vacuuming out a baby from its mother without any anesthesia. They further describe it as a crueler act when it is a partial birth or near-term abortion, when the baby is pulled out by plunging with a sharp object or vacuuming it completely. Though this is a horrible subject to think about it is necessary to discuss about it (Marquis, 839). Those who support abortion reason out that it is necessary for women who conceived without making a choice for it due to rape or failure of contraceptives and are not able to take care of the baby for
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Combined Forces Operation in WWII - Essay Example To the Allies group were Brazil and China as well. On the other hand, the Axis was formed by Italy and Germany at the beginning of the war. Later, they saw the inclusion of eastern European states like Bulgaria and Romania as well as Japan. 62 million persons lost their lives in this confrontation between the Axis and the Allies according to the solar navigator website. Jet aircrafts, atomic weapons, radars, rockets, submarines, tanks and torpedo bombers are the examples of the inventions made during the WWII. Despite the estimated period mentioned on when the war started, many of historians have not reached into an agreement on the exact date of its initiation. However, the commonest of the dates used to signify the beginning of the war is 1939, when Germany attacked Poland triggering the French and British announcements of their entry to the war about two days afterwards. Various conflicts were reported from 1939 onwards until 1941 when the war was now a global affair. The war continued with various attacks being witnessed until 1944. 1944 was termed as Ã¢â¬Ëthe beginning of the end.Ã¢â¬â¢ On 6th June of 1944 the Allies from the Western side attacked Normandy a German held warfront. The British 6th, USAÃ¢â¬â¢s 82nd and 101st and the paratroopers from Canada spearheaded this. Allies, however, suffered a big number of deaths. Artillery batteries of Germany pounded the beaches. Hedgerows helped the units of Germany by offering vantage points for the location of MG 42. Tankers had difficulties, though, due to the hedgerow lanesÃ¢â¬â¢ narrow causeways. They couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t rotate their turrets. Months afterwards, the Allies measured their progress in long yards as well as deadly rifle fights in Bocage. The forces of Germany were almost totally brought down in France while making a counter-attack. In the beginning of the year 1944, the Red Army, which was the Soviet military representation, was at the Polish border and as well lifted the siege of Leningrad. Come
Monday, August 26, 2019
Technical and Cost or Price Evaluations and Price Reasonableness - Research Paper Example This aspect is anchored in the construction companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy framework given the benefits which accrue from practicing transparency within the firm. This takes the form of corporate social responsibility at a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s level. At the individual level, each person at within the organization is expected to uphold justice, integrity and workplace etiquette. According to American Society of Civil Engineers (2012), the application of fairness and integrity during the technical evaluation results in successful project completion. Integrity is an ethical aspect, which both the natural and corporate persons ought to practice in technical evaluation. This virtue incorporates many ethical values; hence it is a pillar in any successful firm. In fact, most organizations maintain high standards of ethics in the society in order to remain relevant and to enhance the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s going concern. Ethical compliance organizational and financial prowess often propels organizations to great heights in business performance. This will help in the achievement of the goals; the returns of firms increase and the shareholder wealth will be created with ease. Technical evaluation and the factors used to determine the competitive range Technical evaluation influences many factors, which determine the competitive range of a particular contract. ... The compliance to fairness, justice and integrity during project evaluation depends on the leaders holding the whims of power. All stakeholders focus on the actions and demeanor of their leader. According to Hansen& Zenobia (2011), technical evaluation enables a company to have a competitive advantage. This has been operating efficiently due to strategic operation management. The technical evaluation culminates in the achievement of a competitive advantage due to the customization of contract services. Technical evaluation culminates in the competitive advantage of a contractor. The market forces determine the prices of contract services in the market. Free trade is not appropriate for developing countries. This is because free trade will make the contractors for the poor to compete internationally with the stable companies. This will further impoverish these companies. Sears, Sears & Clough (2010) assert that regulation in the market may be equal but the financial and economic capab ilities of these companies vary. In the absence of government intervention in the private sector often low income countries, which majorly constitutes of small-scale companies and farmers, will lose their production of the stable international companies. The creation of wealth starts from the protection of the little wealth a nation or individual owns. Trevin?o & Nelson (2011) further posit that free trade results in the flow of skilled workforce from the poor countries to the rich nations because of favorable remuneration. In this regard, the free trade exposes the poor nations to exploitation because foreign investment in poorer countries will deprive the poor of income. Services delivered by the
Sunday, August 25, 2019
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND POLITICS - Essay Example Soviet Union was considered foreign enemy in much of Eastern Europe for a long time after the fall of communism. After all, the communist Soviet Union had invaded these countries and broken their people for decades. This disturbing image has changed over the past few years. The soviet leaders endeavored to secure their power primarily against forces at home, but also against the outside world, since ideology taught them that the outside world was aggressive and that it was their duty ultimately to defeat political forces away from their borders. Soviet Union is considered as the state which followed ideology for the formation of a society that free from the evils of capitalism. Principles of socialism and Marxism in Russia have contributed a comprehensive and mutually unswerving set of ideas which helps the nation to form its foreign policy. The concept of proletarian internationalism has played vital role in the process of making RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy. Historical studies ha ve proved that Russia was considered as the foreign foe in much of European countries especially after the fall of Communism. Leninist ideologies of class struggle and war made the nation in to a land of anti- imperialists. Recent years a considerable number of far-right groups in post communist and socialist nations have considered President PutinÃ¢â¬â¢s authoritarian political infrastructure was a sufficient model and it paved the way for urging broad attitude towards Russia among the European countries. Analyzing the political and social history of Russia one can comprehend that Russian leaders and governments are failed to establish specific ideological base in their nation and the country have shifted its ideology. Different ideologies like Marxism, Socialism, and Leninism are played a vital role in the process of making RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy. Numerous official administrative procedures have been involved in the understanding and effectuation of Soviet foreign polici es. The great crisis that suppressed RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign relation is its defective national, building ideology. Authorities have followed their passiveness in making new ideologies and principles. It is clear that after the formation of the independent Russian Federation in 1991, Russia had reached the status of a Russian nation-state under the leader ship of Boris Yeltsin. But YeltsinÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to change Russia as a land of multiethnic and non -imperial state became collapsed because of an articulate ideology. The online article entitled Domestic Factors Driving Russia's Foreign Policy by Ariel Cohen states that; Ã¢â¬Å"For over a decade, the Russian authorities have failed to provide a coherent and modern nation-building ideology or to overcome Russia's nostalgia for its lost empire.Ã¢â¬ (Cohen 2007). Ideologies in that time have largely encouraged the concept of collective amnesia that promotes Russian nationalism among the people. As a result of this, majority of p eople from Russia have believed United States as an enemy and it caused a gradual deterioration in RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s international al relations. In other words Russian rulers were failed to consume nationalism as an ideology to blend state and society in a healthy way. Analyzing history researcher can comprehend the fact that the aggressive nationalism had influenced the Russian efforts to follow war as a tool of foreign policy. Reader can find the two instances in the history of
The Stasi Officer in The Lives of Others - Movie Review Example They submit secret reports on their co-workers, bosses, friends, neighbors, and even family members. Some do so voluntarily, but many are bribed or blackmailed into collaboration. When the movie begins, the interrogator, Wiesler, seeks a confession from a political prisoner. The accused is made to sit on his hands and is forced to stay awake. Wiesler informs his victim that merely to question the integrity of the Stasi is itself a serious crime. When the necessary confession has been obtained, Wiesler places the cloth from the seat the prisoner has been sitting on in a bottle for the use of tracker dogs. The tape recording of this scene is used to lecture recruits in the art of interrogation. In the process, Weisler is asked a question about the possibility that a victim is innocent. He puts a little cross beside the inquirer's name. At the end of his lecture, an old school friend, Lieutenant-Colonel Anton Grubitz, now head of the Stasi's Cultural Department arrives. Grubitz takes Wiesler to the theatre and suggests that he take an interest in a potentially dissident playwright, Georg Dreyman, whose beautiful girlfriend, Christa-Marie Sieland is appearing in his new play. An influential cultural minister (Bruno Hempf) has designs on the actress and intends to use the Stasi to tarnish the playwright. Wiesler is assigned to the case by his old friend and proceeds to bug the writer's flat and put him under 24-hour surveillance with an eye toward getting him out of the way. As the Captain listens to Dreyman and his girlfriend he begins to like them. Later on, he comes to doubt what he is doing and to suspect the patriotism of those around him. He develops human sympathies for people his superior believes to be suffering from a sickness known as 'anthropocentrism'. He finally becomes moved to question the state tyranny to whose service he has dedicated his whole life. Finally, he provides false reports to his boss, Lt. Col. Anton Grubitz, until the publication of Dreyman's article about suicides raises questions about the few secretly anti-Communist writers who have not already been forced to commit suicide by threats from the secret police. Eventually, Grubitz authorizes a search of the couple's apartment. Since Dreyman has hidden the typewriter under a floorboard, the search reveals nothing. Then Grubitz arrests Christa-Maria, assigns interrogation to Wiesler, who threatens to end her career if she will not talk, so she does. The secret police then organize a second search. However, Wiesler quickly goes to the apartment and disposes of the typewriter before the second search. When the search team arrives, Christa-Maria cannot face her partner, so she leaves the apartment, walks into a passing truck, and dies. Dreyman, however, is in the clear. Realizing that Wiesler has either extracted a false confession or is responsible for the incriminating typewriter, Grubitz demotes him to letter opening or mailman. The events in the story take place in 1984-1985. Mikhail Gorbachev is chosen as the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985, and three years later the Berlin wall falls. Fast forward to 1991, Dreyman leaves the performance of a play and accidentally runs into the culture minister, Bruno Hempf, who in turn tells him to his surprise that he was under constant surveillance. He then goes to the archives of the former East German government to examine
Saturday, August 24, 2019
De Havilland Vehicles - Essay Example The sales office has on-line access to the manufacturer's vehicle tracking system to establish the availability of cars by model, colour and extras. Cars can be ordered directly, but there is no internal system to store data on products or customers, only a card index system. DHV plc also uses paper-based systems to administrate its service and repair booking system, job cards, supplier data, orders, personnel and training. DHV plc has three distinct parts to its business. They act as a middleman for a car manufacturer selling their new vehicles. Last year (2004) 50% of their car sales were new split 40% to business and 10% to private users. The new car warranties and used vehicle guarantees tie customers in for subsequent servicing which builds long term relationships. The company seeks to retain these customers when the warranty or guarantee expires. The company also has a buoyant local repair trade. Whilst the directors of DHV plc have determined that e-Business and more integrated Information Systems is the appropriate way forward to achieve their new objectives it might help define the detail of the problem more accurately by researching not only what the competition are doing but also what e-Business innovations other distribution companies of high value items are usi... Cars can be ordered directly, but there is no internal system to store data on products or customers, only a card index system. DHV plc also uses paper-based systems to administrate its service and repair booking system, job cards, supplier data, orders, personnel and training. 2.2 Market Information DHV plc has three distinct parts to its business. They act as a middleman for a car manufacturer selling their new vehicles. Last year (2004) 50% of their car sales were new split 40% to business and 10% to private users. The other 50% of their car sales were used vehicles and they include guarantees with all second-hand cars sold. The new car warranties and used vehicle guarantees tie customers in for subsequent servicing which builds long term relationships. The company seeks to retain these customers when the warranty or guarantee expires. The company also has a buoyant local repair trade. 3. e-Business Problem Definition and Objectives Whilst the directors of DHV plc have determined that e-Business and more integrated Information Systems is the appropriate way forward to achieve their new objectives it might help define the detail of the problem more accurately by researching not only what the competition are doing but also what e-Business innovations other distribution companies of high value items are using. It might help reinforce the soundness of their strategy and point them in the right direction. 3.1 E-Business ideas for DHV plc According to Lou Gerstner, (CEO IBM 1993-2002): The internet is increasingly playing a more strategic role in business processes and failure to recognise this and take advantage of its potential could result in an organisation being left behind in todays over competitive environment.(Source, Internet & Business,
Friday, August 23, 2019
Conservation of momentum - Lab Report Example During the experiment one should ensure that at least three readings for a particular step are taken then an average of the reading obtained so as to minimize the errors of parallax. The experiment needs to be done at least twice to confirm the recorded values and minimize the errors. The stop watch and all the apparatus used for the experiment needs to be observed before the beggining of the experiment to ascertain their efficiency. The experiment could also be done in an area with vacuum conditions in order to minimize the interferences in obtaining the readings due to air resistance. The two values for V obtain in part 1 and part 2 are not as close as they are expected. This is so due to the errors during the experiment. Without errors, the two values of velocity should be the same. Reanalyzation of the tale values using the largest h fails to make any significant change in the final results of v (Susan 10). The fact is that the two values fail to be as close as they are expected to be. However repeating the entire experiment while avoiding the experimental errors may give out values that are close to the theoretical
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Introduction to Legal Research Essay Facts: Samantha Smith, a young and single mother, was shopping in the bath aisle of the local grocery store in Indiana. At approximately 1:30 pm she slipped and fell on a clear shampoo that had leaked out of one of the bottles and onto the floor. The aisle had been inspected, logged as clear of any dangerous hazards at 1:00 pm by an older employee who requires glasses. As a result of the fall, Samantha was transported to the hospital where she was admitted overnight and diagnosed with a broken hip. She will require many months of physical therapy. Samantha has no healthcare insurance coverage to cover any of her expenses and is responsible for a two year old son. Issue: Did the grocery store have knowledge of the hazardous substance on the floor, therefore being held liable for the injuries that Samantha sustained? Rule: The grocery store can only be held liable if it had knowledge of the hazardous condition. Breach of duty is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the violation of a legal or moral obligation; the failure to act as the law obligates one to act; especially a fiduciaryÃ¢â¬â¢s violation of an obligation owed to another.Ã¢â¬ BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Dictionary 214 (9th ed. 2009) Negligence is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonably prudent person would have exercised in a similar situation; any conduct that falls below the legal standard established to protect others against unreasonable risk of harm.Ã¢â¬ BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Dictionary 1133 (9th ed. 2009) Analysis: Samantha is not able to prove that the grocery store had any knowledge of the hazardous substance on the floor; therefore, the grocery store was not negligent in its duty to the customer and cannot be held liable for SamanthaÃ¢â¬â¢s injuries. Conclusion: It is not likely that Samantha will be awarded damages for her injuries because she cannot show proof that the grocery store had any knowledge of the hazardous spill on the floor. Vaughn v. National Tea Co., 328 F.2d 128 (7th Cir. 1964) Facts: The Plaintiff, Vaughn, slipped and on a piece of lettuce and fell on the floor while shopping at National Tea Company. The store employee stated under testimony that she did not recall cleaning or picking up anything off of the aisle the day before the slip and fall occurred. The lettuce had multiple step marks on it which indicated that it had been there for a while. As a result of the slip and fall, Vaughn ruptured a disc in her back that resulted in the need for surgery. Vaughn filed a lawsuit against the National Tea Company for damages for the injuries she sustained. A jury found the Defendant guilty and awarded damages to Vaughn in the amount of $25,000. See more: how to write an introduction paragraph National Tea Company appealed the case stating there was no proof of negligence. Issue: Did National Tea Company have any knowledge of the lettuce on the floor which would ultimately hold them liable for the VaughnÃ¢â¬â¢s injuries? Rule: Negligence is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonably prudent person would have exercised in a similar situation; any conduct that falls below the legal standard established to protect others against unreasonable risk of harm.Ã¢â¬ BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Dictionary 1133 (9th ed. 2009) Evidence showed that the lettuce had been stepped on multiple times and, therefore, the jury could find that it was on the floor ample enough time for someone at the store to have a duty to clean it up. Analysis: The jury held that National Tea Company was negligent and a breach of duty occurred because they lettuce was on the floor for a long enough time period to be noticed and removed; therefore, Vaughn was awarded dama ges. Carmichael v. Kroger, 654 N.E.2d 1188 (Ind. Ct. App. 1995) Facts: Carmichael was shopping in the dairy aisle at Kroger and at approximately 2:00 pm slipped on a broken egg. As a result, Carmichael filed a lawsuit against Kroger for damages as a result of the slip and fall. Records show that a Kroger employee checked the dairy aisle just after 2:00 pm the same day and confirmed that there was no hazardous material on the floor. Carmichael was unable to prove to the Court that Kroger knew about the broken egg on the floor; therefore, Kroger was not found negligent or liable for CarmichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s injuries. Issue: Did Kroger know about the broken egg on the floor which in turn would hold them liable forÃ CarmichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s injuries? Rule: Liability cannot be imposed if Kroger was not aware of the broken egg on the floor. Negligence is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonably prudent person would have exercised in a similar situation; any conduct that falls below the legal standard established to protect others against unreasonable risk of harm.Ã¢â¬ BlackÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Dictionary 1133 (9th ed. 2009) Analysis: Carmichael failed to prove to the Court that Kroger had any knowledge of the broken egg on the floor that created a hazard; therefore, Kroger was not negligent in its duty of care to Carmichael and cannot be held liable for CarmichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s injuries. Conclusion: The Court of Appeals affirmed the lower courtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision that Carmichael failed to prove negligence and breach of duty.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Assessing Socio Cultural Aspects Of Tourism In Thailand Tourism Essay Thailand has a big variety of cultures, traditions and natural resources, which makes it very attractive tourist destinations. The culture of Thailand incorporates a great deal of influence from China, Cambodia and India. Thailands national religion Theravada Buddhism is central to modern Thai characteristics and faith. More than a few different ethnic groups from Malaysia, Burma etc populate Thailand and have mediated change between their traditional local culture, national Thai and global cultural influences. In addition, tourism development creates socio-cultural impacts in Thailand both positive and negative. The term socio-cultural impacts refer to associated changes to residents daily life, their values, way of life, artistic and intellectual products, architecture of people and customs. The social and cultural ramifications of tourism necessitate careful consideration because impacts can either become assets or detriments to the Thailand community. The use of culture as a tourist attraction increases support for the traditional Thailand cultures and displays of ethnic identity. It increases also the revitalization of traditional language, arts and festivals. The use of culture to attract tourists increases also conservation of the cultural heritage of Thailand which could otherwise be lost. In addition, it helps the development and maintenance of the theatres, museums and any other cultural facilities. When residents observe tourists appreciating their culture, then a sense of renews and reinforces coming up to them. The direct contact between residents and tourists can lead on a breakdown of negative stereotypes and increase social opportunities. Moreover, gives an opportunity for cross- cultural exchange between the residents and the tourists who learn about one anothers culture. This direct contact with foreign people offers to residents the opportunity to meet people, learn about the world and expose themselves to new perspectives. This experience of different cultures broadens horizons and increases the appreciation of different ways of living. Tourism creates changes in economic structure and jobs resulting in changes in social rules. It generates new social and economic opportunities to locals resulting in decrease of social inequity. Furthermore, improves the living standards of residents. It gives to the community money for improvement facilities and services. The development of tourist facilities like hotels, restaurants etc increased recreational opportunities. Generally, tourism improves the quality of life in an area by increasing the number of attractions, services and recreation opportunities. Despite its positive effects Tourism has and negative consequences for the socio-cultural life of Thailand. Tourism generally can cause change or totally loss of local identity and values of the host country. This can be made by: a) Commodification. The increased number of tourists who visit Thailand can turn their cultures into commodities when traditional ethnic rites, religious rituals and festivals are reduced and sanitized in order to meet tourists expectations. Once Thailand is sold as a tourist destination, a tourism product, the supply of arts, souvenirs, entertainment to tourists is a necessity, and vital changes in residents values may occur. Finally, people will not more respect the sacred sites and objects as they are perceive them as goods to trade. b)Standardization. Thailand may risk standardization while trying to satisfy tourists demand for familiarity, concerning the facilities of the destination. Landscape, hotels and all the accommodation facilities, food and drinks, must meet the tourists need for the new. At the same time they must not be too new because most tourists are looking for more familiar things. They actually are looking for recognizable facilities in the new environment. Even in Thailand people looking hotel chains to be accommodated and famous restaurants for their food. c) Loss of authenticity and staged authenticity. By adapting cultural expressions to the tastes of tourists or even performing shows as if they were real life constitutes staged authenticity. The fact that tourists desire a glimpse of Thailands atmosphere, taste and a glance of their life, without knowledge, staging must be expected. d) Adaptation to tourist demands. Tourists that visit Thailand they want to buy souvenirs, arts and any cultural manifestations but in the most cases craftsmen are changing the design of them in order to bring them more in line with the customers tastes. Moreover, the interest shown by tourists, contributes to the self-worth of the artists and helps conserve a cultural tradition. Cultural erosion may occur because of the commodification of cultural goods. Culture clashes can take place in Thailand because of the diversity of tourists with different cultures, religion, languages, values and levels of propensity. That can leads on an overexploitation of the social carrying capacity and cultural carrying capacity that are the limits of acceptable change in the culture and social life of the host community. The attitude of Thailand residents towards tourism development may unfold through apathy, irritation and potentially antagonism, instead of welcome, when anti-tourist attitudes begin growing among local people. Cultural clashes may further arise through: Economic inequality. Many tourists that visit Thailand come from societies with different lifestyle than the local people. Being on holidays they seeking pleasure, they spend a lot of money and they treat in a ways that even they would not accept at home. The local people as they also need pleasure in their life they may develop a sort of copying of this behaviour. Irritation due to tourist behaviour. Sometimes people visiting Thailand failed to respect their customs and their moral values, out of ignorance or careless and local people feel irritated with this attitude. Job level friction. A huge number of hotel chains and restaurants in Thailand employee foreign people, with more professional skills and training than locals have, in the higher level jobs. This cause friction and locals usually feel irritated and the gap between the cultures increases. Ethical issues Crime generation- The growth of tourism in Thailand increases the crime rates, like in any other county with a mass tourism. Tourists usually carry on them cameras, jewellery and a big amount of money that make them attractive to the thieves. Thailand has the highest death rate of any nation for Britons on holiday, some 224 Britons died in Thailand between April 2005 and March 2006. Child labour- Young children are employed in jobs in the tourism sector with low pay. The most jobs in this sector have working conditions like long hours, unstable employment, little training and poor chances for qualification. Prostitution and sex tourism. Generally, the sexual exploitation of children is a worldwide phenomenon but in Asia is more prevalent than elsewhere. The exact number of child-prostitutes in Thailand is not known, but Thailands Research Institute reports that children in prostitution make up 40% of prostitutes in Thailand. It is a major destination for tourists from the Western World who travel to this country to have sex with prostitutes. The huge economic disparities between Thai locals and the Western tourists contribute to the proliferation of sex tourism to Thailand. Children are exploited in sex establishments and are also approached directly in the street by tourists seeking sexual contact. Thailand is also a top destination for victims of human trafficking and a major source of trafficked persons.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Japanese Internment Camps Essay Japanese Americans were treated harshly because Americans turned their anger on Japanese Americans for a crime that was committed by the Japanese. The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, and this action made Americans fear and despise them. Americas fear of an on attack the West Coast of the U.S. caused the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps. The internment of Japanese Americans was disgraceful, and in hindsight, unnecessary. But, given the context of a sneak attack against an unsuspecting public, the removal of this group was a component of an overall strategy to win a war against an aggressive Japan. Still, taking innocent Japanese Americans away from their homes and livelihoods with no compensation is deplorable, especially when many from this same community fought in Europe against the Axis Powers. Japanese Americans were sent to internment camps after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, that is when Americans focused their fears of a Japanese attack on the American west coast upon those Nisei residing in the US; as a result, they were sent to internment camps for the duration of the Pacific War. It all started on February 19, 1942, after the beginning of World War II, Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an Executive Order 9066. The order was to round-up Japanese Americans to move them to one of the 10 internment camps. General DeWitt was the person who advised Franklin D. Roosevelt to round-up Japanese Americans into one of the 10 internment camps. These internment camps were officially called relocation centers. They are located in California, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas. These internment camps were built because among these farmers who competed against Japanese labor and politicians who sided with anti-Japanese constituencies. This caused a frenzy and also heightened by the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor. More than two thirds of Japanese who were interned around spring 1942 were citizens of the United States. In Canada, similar evacuation orders were established. Around 23,000 Nikkei, in other words, Canadians of Japanese descent were sent to camps in B ritish Columbia. All those of Japanese descent were kept together in the United States, but in Canada male evacuees sent to work in road camps or on sugar beet projects. About 2,500 Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants were interned in either camps on Oahu or in the mainland internment camps. The notice boards in certain communities on the western seaboard of the United States were titled Civilian Exclusion Order. These bulletins warned all residents of Japanese descent that they were moving out of their homes. Nobody knew where they were going to end up because the notice did not mention where their headed. Those summoned to the control station had to register the names of all family members. After that, they were told to show up at a certain time and place with all the entire family. They could only bring along baggage that was carried by hand for a trip to a destination unknown to the Japanese Americans. All family names were replaced by a number. They lost their identity once these numbers replaced their names. Families had less than 2 weeks to lease their property or sell everything. This is the moment of despair and humiliation for all Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants to experience. Many Japanese American farmers owned land but now they had to give it all away. An acre on a Nisei farm was worth around $279.96 in 1942 but they had so little time to sell so an acre was worth $37.94 in 1942 in three states. The conditions of the United States internment camps were overcrowded and provided poor living conditions. In 1943, reports published by the War Relocation Authority, the administering agency, Japanese Americans were housed in tarpaper-covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities. The buildings were poorly equipped for cramped living because these camps were built quickly by civilian contractors during the summer of 1942 based on the designs for military barracks. Coal was hard to come by and people slept under as many blankets as they found. Food was rationed out at an expense of 48 cents per internee and served by fellow internees in a mess hall of 250-300 people. Leadership positions within the camps were offered only to the Nisei, the American-born Japanese. The older generations were called the Issei, born in Japan. The third generation of Japanese American was called Sansei. They were forced to watch as the government promoted their child ren and ignored them. They only way for the internees to leave the concentration camps were if they enlisted in the United States Army. This offer did not go very well and only 1,200 internees chose to do so. Those who stayed were not given another choice and forced to live in the internment camps. People worked in the camp offices worked for 44-hours a week, and were paid $8 to $16 dollars per month. Education was provided by the WRA for all school age residents of the relocation centers. The courses were already planned and hired teachers who assisted the state departments of education. Vocational training was provided at the relocation center for communication with the adults. This training was for the evacuees who were able to play a more effective role in agriculture or industry outside the centers. Consumer enterprises were established at the relocation center for internees to purchase goods and services which were not provided by the WRA. Religion was practiced at the relocation centers. Nearly half of the evacuees were Christian. Some Japanese Americans questioned their American loyalties after the government removed them from their homes and held them in internment camps. Although, there are some Japanese American people who still remained loyal to the United States. About 5,589 internees wished to renounce their U.S. citizenship and 1,327 were sent back to Japan. Issei refused to renounce their only citizenship because when the people were asked to renounce their Japanese citizenship would make them a stateless person. Japanese immigrants migrated before the Europeans, and like the Chinese, were not allowed to become U.S. citizens. Japanese immigrants were Asians classified as aliens ineligible to citizenships. Most internees were evacuated from their West Coast homes on short notice and were not told of their destination. Many people failed to pack appropriate clothing for Wyoming winters which often the temperature reached below zero Fahrenheit. Many families were forced to take the clothes on their backs. Armed guards were posted at the camps desolate areas far from the population centers. Internees were allowed to stay with their families and treated well unless they violated the rules. There were guards who shot internees who reportedly attempted to walk outside the fences. Not many camp administrators allowed free movement outside the marked boundaries of the camps. Almost a quarter of the internees left the camps to live and work elsewhere in the United States. Some returned to their hometowns in the exclusion zone but under supervision of an American family or agency that was trustworthy. There were requirements for evacuees to leave a relocation center for either taking a job or establishing normal residence. The first requirement is to check the evacuees behavior at the relocation center and other information from the WRA. If there is any evidence that the evacuee would endanger the nation he or she was denied leave. The second requirement was that officials or citizens must have a reasonable reason where the evacuee planned to settle. Only those who had a place to go or any means of support was granted leave. The last requirement was that evacuees must keep WRA informed of any change of job or address. Japanese Americans were finally free to return to their homes on December 17, 1944. Their homes were marked by the vigilante violence and agitation of pressure group. Most of the internment camps did not close until October 1946. The U.S. government enacted the Civil Liberties Act. The commission on Wartime Relocation and internment of Civilians issued a report declaring that there are no military necessities and recommended a public apology. In that time, about half of the 120,000 internees had passed away. They never got the chance to live and died for something that is not their fault. After the Japanese Americans were released, those who caused them pain did not apologize on the behalf of their actions. The Japanese Americans feel angry because those who caused them pain treat them like nothing.
Monday, August 19, 2019
In Texas politics, one of the most important things to understand is the iron triangle. The iron triangle figuratively symbolizes the relationship between interest groups, the bureaucracy, and legislative committees. Each of the three entities is at a corner of the triangle. It is regarded as an accurate representation of the way in which many routine policy decisions are made. The interest group is at the top, the bureaucracy is at the bottom left, and the legislative committee is at the bottom right. Starting at the interest group and going clockwise, the interest group provides the bureaucracy with information and support for agency budget. The bureaucracy provides the legislative committee with information. The legislative committee provides the interest group with legislation. Going counter-clockwise, the interest group provides the legislative committee with campaign contributions and information. The legislative committee provides the bureaucracy with legislation and budget s upport. The bureaucracy provides the interest group with rules and regulations. An example is the interest group being from the oil and gas industry, the bureaucracy is the railroad commission, and any committee. The lobbyists from the oil and gas industry send campaign contributions and information to the committee. Information could be about anything from supply and demand to turnover rates. The committee sends legislation and budget support to the commission, which are money and rules on how to regulate the oil and gas industry. The rules and regulations are then sent up to the interest group from the industry. The other way, the industry lobbyists send information and support to the commission, which sends the information to the committee, which then sends legislation to the industry. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The process of co-optation is closely related to this iron triangle. Co-optation is defined as the transition from guardian of the public interest to defenders of private interests. This happens for three reasons. First, once a regulatory agency is established, the public tends to lose interest. Second, the regulators tend to come from the industry being regulated, bringing with them the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective and bias as opposed to the public interest. Third, regulators have personal relationships with representatives from the industry who are generous to members of the agency. Basically, the regulatory agencies come to represent the interest of the industry they were created to control as opposed to the public interest. The part of the iron triangle where this occurs is where the interest group sends the agency information and support.
The Sistine Madonna in the Royal Gallery at Dresden, Saxony The most beautiful picture in the world is the Sistine Madonna in the Royal Gallery at Dresden, Saxony. It was painted by Raphael as an altar-piece for a church in Piacenza, Italy. In a far corner of the great Palace of Art it is now placed, probably to remain until the colors shall fade. It is the only picture in the room. The figures are of life size. When that room is entered all voices are hushed, and all merriment silenced. The place is as holy as a church. In the centre of the canvas is the Virgin Mother with a young, almost girlish face or surpassing loveliness. In her eyes affection and wonder are blended, and the features and the figure are the most spiritual and beautiful in the world's art. I have wondered where Raphael found that face. It is not voluptuous like the Italian, nor heavy like the German, nor light like the French, nor cold like the women of more northern nations. It is the ideal woman's face for all nations and ages, and yet it is typical of none. In the Mother's arms is the Divine Child, with those strange, far-away-looking eyes that casual visitors so little understandÃ¢â¬âeyes that even in babyhood seem reading the future, and beginning to see the greatness of the world's sorrow. Kneeling on one side, below them, is St. Sixtus, the nearest perfect of all pictures of strong and venerable age that was ever painted; on the other side Santa Barbara, only less beautif...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Betrayal in Julius Caesar and Animal Farm No one ever said life was going to be easy. Throughout one's life, one is pressurize into making a decisions he or she does not want to make. Sometimes the decisions made are base on how the person feels. One would make their decision by being loyal to the person. Or one may choose a betrayal decision. These difficult decisions were made within the two novels, Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare and Animal Farm by George Orwell. A person's decision, whatever it may be, could affect anyone or everyone that revolves around the decision maker. Conflicts, greed, arguments, crime, are only some examples how things would start to betray each other. When things become chaos, things become hard to control. First, On Animal Farm the pigs slowly were taking over the farm. Little without the animals knowing, they thought everything was going as plan. "No question now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which." Chapter 10, pg. 118. In the end, the pigs betray their ten commandments, their own comrades, and their very own words. Second, with in the story of Julius Caesar, if Brutus did not kill Caesar, Antony would not had to have put the people of Rome against Brutus and the conspirators. The pigs are to some extent like Brutus. On Animal Farm, the pigs were well respected by the animals on Animal Farm. As for Brutus, he is well respected by his friend and the people of Ro me. Brutus also betrays himself. "But I do find it cowardly and vile, for fear of what might fall, so to prevent The time of life), arming myself with patience to stay the providence of some high powers that govern us below", Act 5 sc. 1 lines 113 - 117. Brutus was saying this after Cato kills himself. Unfortunately, at the end, Brutus kills him self, in a fear that he lost everything. Loyalty between two things can help them gain a trust. However if one decides to abuse that trust, then the loyalty between the two things is broken. Comparing Betrayal in Julius Caesar and Animal Farm :: comparison compare contrast essays Betrayal in Julius Caesar and Animal Farm No one ever said life was going to be easy. Throughout one's life, one is pressurize into making a decisions he or she does not want to make. Sometimes the decisions made are base on how the person feels. One would make their decision by being loyal to the person. Or one may choose a betrayal decision. These difficult decisions were made within the two novels, Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare and Animal Farm by George Orwell. A person's decision, whatever it may be, could affect anyone or everyone that revolves around the decision maker. Conflicts, greed, arguments, crime, are only some examples how things would start to betray each other. When things become chaos, things become hard to control. First, On Animal Farm the pigs slowly were taking over the farm. Little without the animals knowing, they thought everything was going as plan. "No question now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which." Chapter 10, pg. 118. In the end, the pigs betray their ten commandments, their own comrades, and their very own words. Second, with in the story of Julius Caesar, if Brutus did not kill Caesar, Antony would not had to have put the people of Rome against Brutus and the conspirators. The pigs are to some extent like Brutus. On Animal Farm, the pigs were well respected by the animals on Animal Farm. As for Brutus, he is well respected by his friend and the people of Ro me. Brutus also betrays himself. "But I do find it cowardly and vile, for fear of what might fall, so to prevent The time of life), arming myself with patience to stay the providence of some high powers that govern us below", Act 5 sc. 1 lines 113 - 117. Brutus was saying this after Cato kills himself. Unfortunately, at the end, Brutus kills him self, in a fear that he lost everything. Loyalty between two things can help them gain a trust. However if one decides to abuse that trust, then the loyalty between the two things is broken.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Ngee Ann Polytechnic School of Business & Accountancy Diplomas in ACC, BIT, BS, BFS & IBZ Business Law LAW OF TORTSTUDENTSÃ¢â¬â¢ COPY Tutorial Questions Section B: Problem Questions (Use LAC format to answer, with supporting cases) 1. Last month, Raj bought a pair of Flying Eagle inline skates from his neighbourhood shop. Flying Eagle inline skates are made in a factory in Tampines owned by the Kang Brothers. Unknown to Raj, the particular model of inline skates had a manufacturing defect. Two weeks ago, while Raj was skating down the Bukit Timah Hill, the brakes on the skates failed, causing him to roll down the hill.Raj suffered multiple bruises on his head, elbows and knees and a fracture of his right wrist. Raj was hospitalised and was unable to work for three weeks as a part-time delivery boy at the Prata Hut. Required: a) Advise Raj whether he can successfully claim compensation under the tort of negligence. Legal principals Negligence is not doing something that a reasonable man would do, or doing something that a reasonable man would not do. A duty of care firstly requires factual forseeablility owed to any person whom we can reasonably foresee will be injured by our acts or omissions to test the remoteness of damage.It is also known as the Ã¢â¬Ëneighbour principalÃ¢â¬â¢. Secondly, there must be legal proximity based on the closeness and directness of the relationship between the parties, physical proximity or casual proximity. Lastly, there is a consideration of all policy matters applicable to the situation which might remove the duty of care which had been established. Whether or not the duty of care is breached determines on the standard of care expected from the person who owes the duty. Factors like the level of skill, likelihood of injury and seriousness of the injury are taken into consideration.The plaintiff must then show that he suffered damage or loss as a direct result of the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s breach. This can be done using the Ã¢â¬ Ëbut forÃ¢â¬â¢ test, in which if the plaintiff would not have suffered damage but for the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s negligence, then the negligence is a direct result and breach of duty of care. Application Flying Eagle owes its customers a duty of care to ensure that its skates are free of defects. It is factually foreseable that if the skates had defects, the person wearing the skates will eventually be injured.There is casual proximity involved as the skates were bought from a shop that sells Flying Eagle skates. Using the Ã¢â¬Ëbut forÃ¢â¬â¢ test, Raj is most likely not to have suffered injuries if there were not any defects. Conclusion In conclusion, Raj is able to sue Flying Eagle for damages regarding his hospitalisation fees and loss of income. b) Discuss briefly whether it will make a difference to your answer if the medical report showed that the injuries suffered by Raj could have been less serious if he had worn a safety helmet, and protective pads while skating.Under the Contributory Negligence and Personal injuries Act, the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s injury was partly contributed by his own fault. The court will apportion the liability between the parties. In RajÃ¢â¬â¢s case, his injuries would have been less serious by wearing his safety equipment. Thus, the extent of injury was partly contributed by his own fault and he will not be able to claim as much compensation as compared to the first scenario. 2. Wanda was very unhappy with her boss, Glenda.After she resigned, she decided to vent her frustration by sending e-mails to her companyÃ¢â¬â¢s clients and some of her colleagues that her boss is Ã¢â¬Å"a fraud and a tyrant who runs the company like an army regiment. Ã¢â¬ These statements are totally untrue and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s clients do not have a good opinion of Glenda anymore. In fact, since the e-mail started circulating, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business has suffered badly. Required: a) Advise Glenda whether she will be successful if she sues Wanda for defamation. Legal principalsDefamation occurs when a statement is published which leads to the lowering of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation in the estimation of members of society. The accused must have made the publication with the intention to harm the reputation of the person defamed, and knows or believes that such injury will result. This constitutes as a criminal offence under the Penal Code (Chapter 224). However, under the law of tort, no intention needs to be proved,Damages are presumed to result from a libel (written statements) and no necessity to prove actual loss capable to being measured in monetary terms.Slander requires proof to special damage. For the statement to be considered as defamatory, it must be published and sent to any person other than the person who is the subject of the statement, untrue and effect of lowering a personÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation generally. Application Wanda is guilty for defamation because her statements were published in the form of ema ils and she had the intention to harm GlendaÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation as she was unhappy with her. Also, there were damages in the form of business loss and this is capable of being measured in monetary terms as well. ConclusionGlenda will be successful if she sues Wanda for defamation. b) What are the possible remedies available to Glenda in this situation? She will be awarded damages to compensate for the loss of reputation. The amount of damages may bbe aggravated by malicious motives and the prominence of both the plaintiff and defendant, seriousness of the libel and the manner and extent of the publication as well as the conduct of the defendant. Glenda can also seek an injunction to prevent the future publication of any defamatory matter and destruction of all defamatory materials published.
Friday, August 16, 2019
For more details on the content of report and ordering information please visit: http://www.aarkstore.com/reports/Global-Money-Transfer-Remittances-Market-Report-2012-Edition-70275.html Remittances are an important source of income for households, particularly in developing countries. Remittances are gaining importance in the economic planning of all major developing economies of the world. With globalization and growing socio-political activities, more and more people from underdeveloped or developing economies are working outside the countries of their origin. Remittances are being considered as an important financial resource for development as well as a social change by financial planners in developing economies. The worldwide inflow and outflow of remittances is rising constantly since past several years with the exception of 2009, which was characterized by global economic slowdown. The developing nations which include both low-income and middle income countries account for the majority of the global remittance inflow with majority contribution from India, China, Mexico and Philippines, due to their large emigrant population. The largest source of remittance flow to developing regions is high income countries including the US and Western Europe, with the GCC countries fast developing as an important source. The companies operating in the global remittance market are faced with strong competition with few large competitors and numerous small and niche competitors. The leading money transfer organization like Western Union, Money Gram, Euronet, and other independent players compete on the basis of technology, price and quality of service offered to remitters. The report analyzes the global remittances market with focus on India, China, Mexico and Philippines. The key trends observed within the market include exchange rate, fluctuating remittance cost, regional employment or unemployment affecting remittances, number of RSPs and cost variation across India and China and dominance of cash prices over the remittance market. The global remittance market faces several challenges which include the taxes which are imposed by the government on remittances and numerous legal and regulatory hurdles. The major factors which will contribute in the growth of the industry include growing international migration, rising employment rate and global economic growth. By combining SPSS Inc.Ã¢â¬â¢s data integration and analysis capabilities with our relevant findings, we have predicted the future growth of the industry. We employed various significant variables that have an impact on this industry and created regression models with SPSS Base to determine the future direction of the industry. Before deploying the regression model, the relationship between several independent or predictor variables and the dependent variable was analyzed using standard SPSS output, including charts, tables and tests.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Company Service and Product: Excellence Logistics Ltd (ELL) is a privately owned logistics company specialising in the delivery of Business-to-business items within throughout Europe. The company was founded in 1992 to provide an efficient logistics service specially targeted to manufacturing firms from their network of suppliers. The emphasis for the company at this initial stage was speed and efficient service as a result of regional efficiency. At start up, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters was in Hong Kong with a regional distribution centre in Shanghai, China. Presently the company has 5 major distribution centres all over the world, however our strategy to be a strong player in the Asian market is still core to our operations.. Our warehouses provided storage and logistics support for our clients which at inception were mostly Chinese companies but have extended throughout the world. Our Warehouse services have continued to be a vital aspect of our business as we support clients who do not wish to own their facilities, a trend which had become popular in the late 1980s. This aspect of the business still represents a significant part of ELLÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue. Apart from our warehousing services, ELL is involved in contract logistics services, freight management, and logistics consulting. However, the company extended to the offering logistics support for end products and distribution to our clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ retail and wholesale outlets which increased our freight handling requiring new skills and expertise. Size and Scope of Influence: The CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s new goal is to be the premier logistics company serving manufacturing companies globally with a strong base in Asia. ELLÃ¢â¬â¢s new goal was to take the company from being seen as a logistics company primarily in the Asian region to being a global player leveraging on the use of technology to do this. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employee figures have also increased from 2,300 to over 4000 within the last 2 years due to our efforts in expansion. Revenue, Ambition, Strengths and Weaknesses: HKÃ¢â¬â¢s profit last year was $5.7M after tax as the year marked the beginning of huge investments in technology as a result of the need for the company to be more responsive and to implement major e-commerce and parcel tracking initiatives. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strength in Europe offered it huge benefits and market growth in the region despite stiff challenge from global operators. It however became obvious that the company needs to expand globally in order to benefits its corporate clientele most of whose operations required freights to other continents. This need was very important also as we extended our business to the shipment of end products form our clients to various distributors creating a new challenge. CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and goals regarding e-commerce: Last year the company transformed its website into a portal as first steps towards new integrated e-commerce initiatives. The company is now fully aware that this is the way to go to ensure that it benefits its growing customers and stay competitive. The major challenge for ELL is to coordinate its operations and ensure the integration of its services throughout the business from collection to delivery stages. To do this, it was essential to provide real-time visibility of our operations and parcel progress to our clients to ensure efficient management. Section 2: Internet Business Scope The e-commerce Project: As previously explained Excellence Logistics Ltd has evolved a new strategy to position it as a global player through the potential opportunities that e-commerce can provide. This is important because we believe that it will also enhance our ability to collaborate effectively with other global players who will wish to tap into the Asian market. In line with this our warehousing solutions have been enhanced with four new distribution centres to give our growing client base flexibility and wider range of locations closer to their manufacturing plants. This is guaranteed to optimise cost savings, lower liabilities, increased speed-to-market and enhanced freighting and shipment services. Our fulfilment services are aimed at providing specialised services including postponement, inspection, returns and salvage to our clients who require these value-adding services. The increasing importance of Asian companies in global manufacturing supply chain has put ELL in a strategic position and we aim to optimise our advantage. Our Present Position: Our use of technology before this project was not spectacular as with most Asian companies. Like every standard company, we maintained a central database of our operations without the ability to track goods in real time. Information was shared with customers on stock levels on a weekly basis and updating of data was done manually from information received from our customers. Standard EDI transactions included advance ship notice and notice of shipment and payments by our customers was done through electronic funds transfer. This was not good enough and it became obvious that we were loosing customers who wanted to know the condition of their shipments in real time which we presently could not do. It was therefore clear that we would be limited in providing good customer service and could loose most of our valued clients. So this e-commerce project was essentially important to move EEL to the next level in terms of our global strategy Goal Setting and Corporate Communication: The importance of the internet project was clear to management as it was important in the growth of the company and new global initiatives for expansion. However, the huge financial commitments required meant that it had to be effectively explained to shareholders for approval. To do this, an internal team headed by the CIO was set up to articulate the goals and cost of the project. They were also given the responsibility for communicating this to all the stakeholders and drawing up an implementation plan. New Opportunities/Necessary Changes: It was clear that to move forward, e-business was crucial to helping us get real time information necessary for our operational efficiency. The implementation of e-business was mainly driven by the growing demands on our business. This process started with the company streamlining its operations with the intention of transforming itself from a traditional bricks and mortar logistics company to a company using e-commerce and technology strategically to enhance service quality and delivery. It also had become necessary to extend beyond Hong Kong to serve companies in Europe and United States and these regions were increasingly sourcing for products from Asia which was our primary market. Secondly, technological development in the logistics sector had advanced with the possibility of clients being able to ascertain real time locations and condition of their shipment. New software applications implementation meant that we had to expand our IT section and employ more staff. It also meant that we had to downsize in some areas of the company that increasingly became irrelevant. In terms of strategy, the e-commerce project aimed at extending our frontiers giving us the ability to compete on a global scale hence our new positioning to be a global player. The projectÃ¢â¬â¢s twin focus was: Enhanced Value through Channel Integration: We required the integration of our distribution network with our warehousing and transportation management systems to drive overall freight costs down by consolidating orders for multiple customers.Ã This integration of systems also provides customers with immediate access to information with reduced order cycle times and transit times insuring that materials are in the right place at the right time. Automated Services through Integrated Technology: Our transportation management service was developed to reduce freight costs and increase on time deliveries. Transportation management services include carrier selection, pricing negotiations, real-time shipment status (via website) and automated communication.Ã Automated communication includes: exceptions performance management and exception reporting claims resolution reporting Section 3: Knowing the Enemy (3) One critical factor for our internet project as already expressed is the need to catch up with global competition and ensure that we offer our customers what they require. It is clear that our biggest inspiration in terms of competition is Exel, a global company originating from the United States. Exel is a global leader in supply chain management with significant interests in the Middle East and China. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputable has attracted global companies like Sun Microsystems, Ericsson, Motorola, Hitachi, and Nokia as some of the companies that it services. In a way, our service offerings are similar as we target manufacturing companies as our client base which is similar to what Exel does. Just over three years ago, the company faced a similar situation as what Excellent Logistics now faces; there was need to provide an integrated global supply chain management systems as the company had clients in every continent and serviced their clients from delivering components for manufacture to the distribution of end products. In order to achieve this, the company hired the service of Agilisys to design a web-based supply chain integrator system that aimed at offering their corporate clients an integrated view of inventory and delivery status of goods at every point in time. In the project for Exel, the company listed the deliverables expected from Agilisys as follows: Intelligent interface design to enable re-use of purchase order and inventory data Integration of disparate systems for clients and third-party logistics suppliers Ability to track stock through the entire supply chain In-depth methodology to work on the look and feel of the site Multi-tier messaging architecture, extraction and middleware technologies to enable integration with incompatible systems No doubt, the result of this project was that Exel became more able to respond to their challenges of expansion globally. This project no doubt portrayed Exel as a technologically driven company responsive to providing great services to its customers and increased its market share all over the world. We can surely say, its recent partnership with global giants DHL is a statement of the status Exel has gained over the years as a result of its e-business adoption. Our focus has been explained in section 2 is similar to that of Exel while we desire to ensure that we continue to play a strong role in Asia. The figure below shows the critical areas the e-business project was meant to address: Figure 1: E-business project concepts identified as crucial by collaboration team. Excellence Logistics Ltd. is clearly interested in using this as a relevant pattern in our quest to implement our own e-business initiative. We are conscious of this and have extended our scope with our e-business consultants to include the following: Investigation of the use of RFD technology in logistics as we intend to be one of the first companies to implement this. Integration with third party suppliers like DHL and UPS for extended services and direct deliveries to our clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ customers. This is very essential in the delivery of end products from our warehouses. It is clear that we are essentially a Business-to-Business logistics company with particular interest in manufacturing firms particularly in the technology sector. Our target customers are likely to have the following characteristics: Be Manufacturing Companies usually in the Technology sector. With significant partnerships and interest in Asian market. Companies requiring specialised logistics services including warehouse facilities. We shall be extremely focused to concentrate on our target sector and to be the best in our sector and will look for opportunities to better understand our customers and their needs. The approach is to ensure full empowerment and information sharing with our customers and partners with constant feedback on possible areas of improvement. Section Four: eBusiness Strategy Project Procedure: To achieve our goals as a company, it is essential to articulate clearly our e-business strategy as a company. Initiation Phase: A cross-functional team headed by the Chief Information Officer (CIO) looks at our needs and in conjunction with our consultants, produce a framework for the project. Planning Phase: This involved communication with management and evolution of a time-table with which the project will be guided and also explaining the process to our partners, staff and clients to understand our aims with the project. An extended collaboration team including representatives from operations, finance, IT, customer service, and human resources department was inaugurated at this stage to help with the process to ensure company-wide participation. Execution Phase: This involves the stage by stage implementation of the project including necessary skills training and workshops. Control Phase: The objective during the control phase is to closely monitor the performance measures agreed to by the collaboration team. Any service exceptions or performance measures not met will be reviewed with the CIO who was the head of the project and reported to management on a monthly basis. Process Improvement Phase: This involved the analysis of the project and improvements on initial design based on any shortcomings found. The objective of this phase is to meet the required service levels as originally agreed for the project. These initiatives will enable us to capitalize on past successes and allow us to take our supply chain to the next level of innovation, to effectively monitor operational capabilities, improve performance levels, measure cost accurately, and develop world-class processes. Supply Chain Strategy: Our Supply Chain Management Strategy is to develop and manage a preferred supply base that enhances the success of our customers and their long term competitiveness. It is now clear that efficient supply chain management clearly impacts on the profitability of our clients. We shall therefore employ the following: Just-in-time supply management. Developing and maintaining long-term client relationships. Strong organizational and process integration to leverage on technology. Reduction in cycle times and reduction of total costs. Global Collaboration and outsourcing to reduce overhead costs. Legal Framework: Legal issues with the e-business project include the following Privacy concerns for individual customers who want to ensure that their data, communication and information is secure. Global trade issues and legislations affecting the industry. Intellectual Property protection. Security of payment transactions. Marketing Strategy: We aim to maximise our new e-business strategy and initiative be deploying online promotions, search engine strategies, co-marketing branding with customers and partners, new media advertisements and global brand development. Section Five: Public Image Organisational Goal: Our primary goal is to be a global logistics provider and the premier logistics company providing specialized services to manufacturing firms with a strong base in Asia. We have however clearly defined four essential areas that this project is focused on with supporting performance measures: Ã §Ã Improve management efficiency Ã §Ã Virtual meetings and collaborations. Ã §Ã Reduced logistics cost Ã §Ã Increased Time Deliveries Ã §Ã Reports and event management Ã §Ã Security and trust issues Ã §Ã Provide secure login for partners, customers and employees. Ã §Ã Controlling access levels. Ã §Ã Better Customer Service Ã §Ã Provide Online Enquiry Ã §Ã Online viewing and real-time tracking of parcels. Ã §Ã Ã Provide remote consultation services Ã §Ã Online registration and bill payment Ã §Ã Bigger Participation and Future Opportunities Ã §Ã For other logistics companies and potential Partners. Ã §Ã Identifying consolidation opportunities or possible global mergers. Ã §Ã Supports RFID technology. Our foundation as an efficient and reliable logistics provider is built on the hard work and integrity in our operations which we have emphasized from the inception of the company.Ã We would continue to utilize this while we aim at being responsive to new technology needs in order to improve our efficiency and keep the trust of our clients. With regards to software capability, it was important that it was customized to meet our specific needs with our focus on a paperless system based on flexibility and reduction in freight costs and increased delivery times. Security and Privacy Issues: The following issues form the framework for our policy on security and privacy issues: Data Protection: This is an important law gaining global attention with regional legislations particularly in the US and European commission. Our goal will be to ensure that all private information is obtained by obtained by fair and lawful means; relevant to the purposes for which they are to be used; should be protected with reasonable security measures to prevent unauthorized access, destruction or modification. Financial Transactions: It is essential that all payments and transfer of money is done securely and that is in line with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal of transparency and fairness. Intellectual Property: Trademark and intellectual property of our customers will be adequately protected. E-mail and communication: We would use secured e-mail communication and create effective firewalls to protect both incoming and outgoing e-mail. It is essential that communication is sent to the right department and our collaboration software ensures this with the encryption of sensitive communication. Risk Assessment: Clearly the major risk issues is Security and Technical faults . Our desire however is to turn this to a strategic marketing tool by ensuring emphasis on secure transactions. To mitigate these risks, we have done the following We have engaged IBM, a global player and foremost e-business consulting company. Ensuring that Technology used is relevant, secure and flexible to support future business changes. We have put offline software capabilities and procedures to deal with possible downtimes and internet failures. We are aware of lose of revenues by companies due to technical faults and will preempt this. Developed efficient service levels and procedures for timely intervention. Communication Strategy: We would effectively communicate and educate our customers, suppliers and partners as to the effective use of our systems for maximum benefit and ensure that responsibility is taken for our technology. We would emphasise the convenience, efficiency and the interactive experience that our e-commerce initiative provides. Section Six: Information Strategy (2) Information Gathering: As important as technology is, information is the basis and information is essential to make the business successful. As part of the initial process, the company has looked at what information is necessary to ensure we operate efficiently and provide the quality of service that we desire. It is therefore essential that information is carefully designed and assess should be monitored to ensure that it is used only for official purposes. Privacy is very important to also protect confidential information as some of our clients are competitors to each other to ensure that we operate ethically. It is also necessary to ensure proper reporting and performance measurement to enhance the future direction of this project. The figure below shows the major enterprise units and some sample information needs. Figure 2: Our Value Chain As a result of our position in the supply chain business, it is important that we ensure efficient use of information between the interacting organisations and units as shown in the figure above. A typical situation is to get an order from our customersÃ¢â¬â¢ manufacturing locations to our central warehouse where the order is confirmed based on inventory availability. Inventory is also automatically connected to our supplier chains who supply components once the set reorder level is reached. This same process occurs with the product retailers and individual customers who order our customer products. The essence is to maintain a just-in-time supply chain that maximises the efficiency of the value chain and reduces cost associated with poor forecast. Whenever a product or component is shipped based on an order, an invoice is automatically issued which is settled through online transactions and transfers. On the other hand, the supply chain system links with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s relevant departments particularly the accounts and logistics supports units. Ã Problems with Information Flow Dealing with different companies in the chain presents bottlenecks that hinder communication. Privacy Constraints and Data Protection differences across countries. Ã Strategy to enhance Information flow efficiency Work with companies, suppliers and partners who understand the value of efficient Technology and accept our strategy. Build a Customer Service Team to handle Information Keep communications from management to front office staff open at all stages of the project and with implementation. Make Excellence Customer Service the basis of our e-business project. Give ownership to everyone so that all employees can be part of improving the project and contributing to future changes. Section Seven: Future Operation and Development RFID Integration: In the long term, our business strategy is to maximize the opportunities that are available for global partnerships with other logistics providers in areas where we are not too strong, while we provide similar support in our primary area. One major benefit of the project is its suitability and implementation of RFID which is gaining global attention particularly for the logistics sector. We are conscious that this is a trend that will be the standard for the future and with this project have positioned ourselves for its implementation in a yearÃ¢â¬â¢s time. What makes the RFID technology interesting and important? Ã Whereas barcodes only identify the product, RFID tags can tell what the product is, where it has been, itÃ¢â¬â¢s expiry date and any other information required for the product. This makes information retrieval and access automatic and complete on its own. ItÃ¢â¬â¢ will produce adequate information about when and where merchandise is manufactured, picked, packed and shipped so that data can be stored, transmitted in real-time and shared with warehouse management, inventory management, financial and other enterprise systems. Another benefit of RFIDs is that, unlike barcodes, RFID tags can be read automatically by electronic readers. Imagine a truck carrying a container full of widgets entering a shipping terminal in China. If the container is equipped with an RFID tag, and the terminal has an RFID sensor network, that containerÃ¢â¬â¢s whereabouts can be automatically sent to Prime Technologies without the truck ever slowing down. It has the potential to add a substantial amount of visibility into the extended supply chain. The only issue in its implementation is the cost and the fact that it will still take a couple of years before it becomes a global standard. This project has increased the potential of possible collaboration through the use of web services through which data is shared and transmitted to enhance communication between companies. Our positioning to enhance our future strategic goals will be in line with the following: Our initial strategy aimed at expanding globally will result in the implementation of our e-business project that is aimed at ensuring that we can track goods in transit and provide our customers with real-time information. The implementation of RFID to help efficient tracking of parcels and increase our efficiency at warehouses. The four major groups that our company has include: Customers that we provide complete logistics solutions for including shipping, transportation to and from factory. Customers that we provide warehousing services alone. Customers that we provide warehousing and shipping of components and materials to their factories but who handle their own distribution. Customers who handle their own warehousing but leave transportation and logistics to us. It is clear that our e-business project is essential to all these groups but will be more critical to the companies that use our operations completely. We are certain that this will enhance our ability to effectively increase our customer base in all these sectors. Strategy to Enhance Future Value While e-business benefits may be difficult to measure, we will keep working on performance measurement of the project to ensure that value is generated and sustained. That we utilise simple technology that will be easily scalable and flexible to enhance future possible changes using open-source technology as much as possible. Sensitive to cultural and language barriers in the use of technology. Employee participation, training and motivation to make everyone involved in project development. The project must continue to improve convenience, efficiency and security for all users and stakeholders. References Kendra Bonnett, An IBM guide to doing business on the internet. Mcgraw Hill. 2000. Charles Trepper, E-commerce Strategies. Microsoft Press. 2000. Charles Trepper (2000) E-Commerce Strategies. Published by Microsoft Press. 10 Ã¢â¬â 11, http://www.cio.com/research/scm/edit/012202_scm.html#scm_emerging (assessed February 18) http://www.forfas.ie/publications/ebus_ict_leg02/021029_ebusiness_ict_leg_pressrelease_s.pdf (assessed February 21) http://www.usherproject.org.uk/support/scenarios/legal.pdf