Saturday, March 30, 2019
Medulla Oblongata: Function and Location
Medulla Oblongata Function and LocationMedulla oblongataThe electric light oblongata is a rattling interesting part of the nous. This in truth small section of the hit stem has a very large amount of responsibility in the human eubstance. Studies concerning this section help in the lowstanding of most prefatorial biological functions of the body. Some of the actions are ones that we dont even notice are hap on a day-to-day basis but are very classic to human animation. The bulb oblongata has many different connections with former(a) areas of the witticism, plays a key role in several functions of the body, has neurotransmitters that are composite in the functioning of this area, has diseases that dismiss considerablely propel its roles in the body.The medulla oblongata has many connections to other areas of the brain. The medulla oblongata is the most inferior portion of the brainstem and is active three centimeters long. It slightly bulges out of the brain stem. It is rigid in amid the pons and the spinal cord. The axons that carry sensory information to and motor instructions from the higher brain regions rid of through the brainstem. It creates tracts that allow communication to pass through from certain sides of the brain. These tracts house fibers that cross each other in pyramidal region of the medulla oblongata allowing the brain to communicate with the opposite of the body. rattling nuclei located in the gray matter of the medulla oblongata are utilise for cranial nerves.The medulla oblongata has many different functions in the body. These functions are cosmos performed at all hours of the day, many of them without contribution from other sections of the brain. One main(prenominal) function is relaying signals between the brain and the spinal cord. The medulla helps with coordinating very large body movements liking jogging or climbing. The medulla houses portions of the brain that control what is considered automatic homeo static functions as well as some primitive organs (Campbell and Reece 2008).The cardiac portion constantly sends inhibitory impulses to the purport to tell it to slow down. This portion also sends acceleratory impulses through the spinal nerves to make the flavor beat faster whenever it may be necessary. The vasomotor portion sends impulses via spinal nerves through the spinal cord to muscles walls around arteries causing them to constrict. This constriction of arteries testament cause blood compact to rise. The respiratory portion houses respiratory nuclei that control the depth and rate of breathing. The medulla oblongata also plays a role in reflex responses. The capability to respond quickly to a stimulus derriere be very important when there is a need to survive. Reflex responses include swallowing, sneezing, vomiting, coughing, and digestion. A parcel out of these functions are involuntary or start score voluntary and past transform in to involuntary functions.The acti vity of the medulla oblongata rely on axons that reach many areas of the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum, releasing neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine. When under stress, norepinephrine relays messages to the brain that control reflex reactions and ability to make up attention. Like epinephrine, norepinephrine also triggers the fight-or-flight response. The fight-or-flight response is directly related to heart rate. It causes glucose from energy being stored to be released and blood flow to increase to muscles that change the body to react as necessary. Norepinephrine raises blood pressure when apply as a drug. This raise in blood pressure causes a correlated drop in heart rate.Dopamine, another neurotransmitter in the brain, opens dopamine receptors also affecting blood pressure and heart rate. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that deals with mood. Excessive aggressive, sadness, or jealousy is linked to the medulla oblongata. Acety lcholine is used in the motor division and cross over in the medulla oblongata. It is involved in muscle movement, autonomic body functions, and excitatory reactions.Many diseases and disorders affect the medulla oblongata. One disorder is a very rare and lots fatal medullar abscess (Wait 2009). A medullar abscess is viewed as a condition of rapidly modernized multiple cranial nerve palsies and falloffd level of consciousness (Wait 2009). quaternate system atrophy is a neurological disorder that degenerates nerves cells located in areas of the brain including the medulla oblongata. This disease can cause the impairment of control of autonomic functions such as bladder control, movement, and coordination (Benarroch 1997).Damage to the medulla oblongata can cause several functions of the body to be thrown off and even death. Because cranial nerves run through this section of the brain defacement there can cause several sensory problems. For instance, injury can cause numbness or paralysis of the palate and throat causing drooling and a lack of taste. This numbness can also ostensibly cause problems with speech. It can also cause gagging, inability to rotate the neck, and erosive reflux. Surprisingly if a person suffers from brain damage their body can still function if the medulla oblongata is not damaged. However, damage to the medulla oblongata can cause the need for a breathing machine or other life support equipment. If the medulla oblongata is damaged sometimes the brain and body can recover and no longer need the use of a life support machine, but often the body cannot recover and a person is considered to be brain dead. In this stage, the removal of a life support machine will mean a persons body will no longer function and that person will die.A great assortment of medications and drugs can also alter the state of the medulla oblongata. Overdoses commonly result in death because the medulla oblongata cannot carry out its functions under that amo unt of a specific drug. Opiates, coma, and hypothermia can affect the medulla oblongata in ways that cause the body to exude physical conditions comparable to death. anesthesia is able to function as it does because its chemical components cause the medulla oblongata to decrease its autonomic functions.ReferencesBenarroch E, Smithson I. 1997. Distribution and relationships of neuropeptide y and NADPH-Ddiaphorase in human ventrolateral medulla oblongata. J Auto Nerv Sys. 62(3) 143-146.Hashimoto M, Hatasa M, Shinoda S. 1992. Medulla oblongata germinoma in association with Klinefelter syndrome. Surg Neur. 37(5) 384-387.Wait S, Beres E, Nakaji P. 2009. Bacterial abscess of the medulla oblongata. J Clin Neur. 16(8) 1082-1084.Campbell A, Reece J. 2008. Biology. 8th ed. San Francisco (CA) Benjamin Cummings. 1245.