Sunday, March 31, 2019
The Sand Mining In Kalu Ganga Environmental Sciences Essay
The spinal column Mining In Kalu Ganga Environmental Sciences audition01. Kalu Ganga considered as one of the major river in Sri Lanka. It started from Idikatupana in Samanala Mountain and dismissed at Kalutara. It is 126 Km extensive and covered Sbaragamuwa and Western Providences including Ratnapura, Horana and Kalutara.02. Kalu Ganga is one of the almost important Rivers in Sri Lanka which receives very juicy rainf every(prenominal)s and has higher discharges. Due to its hydrological and topographic characteristics, the lower flood plain suffers from frequent floods and it affects socio-economic profile greatly.03. Kalu Ganga body of peeingshed is the number largest river basin in Sri Lanka application 2766 km2 and much of the catchment is located in the highest rainfall ara of the country, which reflects the high annual rainfall. The annual rainfall in the basin is averaged to 4000 mm and leads to 4000 million m3 of annual flow.04. Indiscriminate river mainstay exc avation in Sri Lanka has slipd a number of environmental hassles much(prenominal) as erosion of river banks, end of bridges and roads, ocean water supply system incursion to the coconut and paddy lands, and declination of river water select used for drink and bathing. However, despite the concerns of authorities and environmental groups, keystonepaper minelaying is continuing at an alarming rate as exploitrs and other beneficiaries still appreciate the offstage profitability at the outgo of long-term environmental represents.05. On the other hand, blanket recommendations to banning of river good sense digging lead to privation of income opportunities of the muckle, who involved in various activities connect to to keystone tap, and increase the construction costs.CHAPTER 2AIM01. The aim of this story is to convince the reader to impact of sense mine affect on the Kalu River and problems occurred due(p) to guts dig activities.Statement OF PROBLEM02. With t he incensement of the constriction workings in Western and Sbaragamuwa provinces annual requirement of mainstay is increased. In launch to fulfill the required demand, gritrock exploit activities similarly increased in Kalu River. These smoothen minelaying activities be caused number of environmental and fond problems. more or less of these problems argon erosion of river bank, sea water intrusion to the agriculture lands and loss of habitant, problem and destruction of road and bridges, and deteriorations of quality of drinking water. Due to profligate sand minelaying activities this problem alike increases rapidly.RESEARCH HYPOTHESES03. By trim back sand archeological site activities skunk be reducing the damage to the environment, scavenge capital for repairing and construction of new road net work and brigs. It is also can up lift affectionate condition of the people who funding in these areas.METHODOLOGY04. This study ordain be initiationd on entropy col lection form government organization and, people who right off living affected areas and documentary sources.05. Primary source of collection of study was based on documentary sources including publications, give-and-takepaper articles and information were taken by surfing through the Internet.06. Secondary source selective information obtained from Ministry of Environmental and geological Survey and Mining Bureau, tour to people living in kalu River area. Data obtained from irrigation department.SCOPE OF THE STUDY07. The scope of the study covers the affect of environment and social problem, because of sand mine activities in Kalu River.STRUCTURE OF THE PAPER08. The paper will be structured as followsa. Chapter I. The first chapter will contain the gate to the paper.b. Chapter II. The second chapter will contain the Methodology of the study and will nominate of the following(1) Aim(2) Statement of the Problem(3) Research hypothesis(4) arena of the study(5) Method of data c ollection(6) Structure of the paperc. Chapter III. backrest groundd. Chapter IV.Datae. Chapter V.Analysisf. Chapter VI.Conclusion and recommendationOBJECTIVES09. General Objectives To essay the social and environmental affect and by intperchucing alternative methods to minimize sand archeological site activities, to reduce social and environmental are writes.10. Specific ObjectivesTo crumple what are the problem mainly affected because of sand excavation.To analyze how these problems effected to people in this areas.To analyze how these problems effected to government.To introduce suitable response for the reduce sand tap activities in Kalu River.DATA COLLECTION METHODS11. Visiting sand mining site (licensed and illegal) in Kalutara and Ratnapura district.12. Data obtained from Ministry of Environmental and geological Survey and Mining Bureau.13. Visiting to people living in kalu River area.14. Books, News papers, Internet, etc.LIMITATIONS15. The time available to conduct t his research will be only 3 months. The length of the paper will be circumscri contend to 5000 words, and it will non be possible to collect data from all the reliable sources.Area of research16. This research was conducted in Kalutara district covering mast of the areas of sand mining taking palace in Kalu River. The area include Kalutara to Ingiriya along the Kalu River.CHAPTER 3BACK GROUND01. The demand required for sand construction works within the country is more than five million cubic meters or eight million ton of sand mine and sold per year. This sand quantity values surfacely 16 billion. This high demanding for market of sand led to mining the sand significantly in most of the areas of Kalu River. Not only the deposited sand mining, river bed sand mining as swell up as river bank sand removal also increased. The river sand mining highly affect to the natural equilibrium of the Kalu River.02. in that location are some other important rivers in Sri Lanka also set sl ightly to this environmental and social problem in various scales. It is estimated that sand mining in Kalu River has increased by three times in finally few years. Over mining in the river causes many problems like deteriorations of quality of drinking water supply due to sea water intrusion to the Kalu River, collapse of river bank and loss of river land. Considering the importance factors of scientific assessment on the environmental degradation consequent to unsystematic sand mining, an effort has make in this research study to recognize remedial and environmental impacts in Kalu River basin due to sand mining.03. spine mining is continuing to be a major environment hazard in many separate of Sri Lanka oddly due to the unprecedented increase in demand to the obliging contraction activities in the substructure and housing sector.04. Substitute for river sand is sea sand which available in the market. However industry prefers river sand due to problems of salinity and the nee d to dry sea sand to reduce noisome material. Anther substitute is crashed quartzite rock (impure are from silica) available in form of ridges especially in the hill country as well as Polonnaruwa and Dambulla area.05. This issue as highlighted in this paragraph is the question of who is legislatively authorized to foil the mining of river sand. In this content I shall quote from the cost saving Act No 57 of 1991. Costal zone is defined as the area lying with in a limited of three degree centigrade meters land wards of mean high water line and limit of devil kilo Meters seaward from the mean low water line.06. In cause of river, streams, or any other body of water connected to the sea either permanently or periodically the landward boundary lengthened to limit of two kilo Meters measured perpendicular to the straight base line drown between natural entrance point and includes water of such river, streams and lagoons or any other body of water so connected to the sea.07. Under m ines and mineral Act NO 33 of 1992 the geologic survey and mines bureau (GSMB) could also issue sand mining permits in the foreshore or sea bed with in the sand mining with in the meaning of crown land ordinance (chapter 454) with the approval of the minister of cost conservation. This act was amended by Act NO 66 geologic survey and mines bureau in 2009.08. in that respect are some ambiguities related to the regulation of activities in the costal zone and river bank as well as beds. However it must be stressed that all mining activities should be under the Mines Bureau administration by the mines and mineral Act.CHAPTER 4DATAPRESENT SITUATIONMethod of sand mining01. There are three method used for sand mining.Sand mining near to river bankSand mining in depth water (5 ft to 10 ft)using sand mining bucket with rod (Bonderi method)Sand mining in river bed using sauceboats02. Considering these in that location methods, sand mining using boats was prominent in Kalu River. This method was mostly affected for the mining sand in Kalu River. This was done by following sequence.Bring the boat to positions were sand are collected.Look for suitable place and place bamboo rod in that place.Take the basket and dive to the water and find were sand available.Takes sand and fill in to the boat.Take pass to the river bank and down load to the Lorries or places were sand selling.Sand mining quantities03. There are different between sand mining quantities and location and people are used for sand mining in place to place and it is generally.1 2 Volume of cub boat 6 men involued.1 or less Volume of cub small boat 4 men involved.Most of the boats mining sand about 4 -6 cub of sand per day04. Considering Kalutara district in that respect are 471 licensed sand mining places according to the GSMB. These places are in Kalutara, MIllaniya, Dodangoda, Madurawala, Bulathsinhala and Ingiriya. GA divisions.Sand mining places in Kalu River in Kalutara district05. These are the lic ensed sand mining places in Kalutara districtMillaniya 150Dodangoda 138Kalutara 061Madurawala 075Walalavita 040Palindanuwara 068Pandura 007Ingiriya 037Bulathsighala 07606. During year 2010 GSMB was carried out survey on volume of deposited sand in Kalu River. This was carried out two Engineers of GSMB Mr Rgive and Mr Janaka (Mining Engineers). fit to there observation this was the resultQuantity of sand deposits in Kalu River in a year 120,000 CubQuantity that mining at kalu River 178,000 Cub07. According to there are results more than 78,000 Cub of sand adequately mining in Kalu River in yearly?Other livelihoods from depend on sand mining08. There are few people who depend on sand mining on Kalu River they are sand transporters, small hotels unfortunate people who and supply sand buckets,Environmental Damage due to sand mining09. River sand is mined for used in the building industry. In a few location it can be even be beneficial by lowering the river bed and reducing flooding. B ecause of mining of Sand, River bed is lowering and it increases the volume of the water it can hold. Because of that during heavy rain this can be prevent form food. In 2003 food in Ratnapura is about 33 ft except in Tebuwana area it was only 15 ft.10. Current level of extraction in inappropriate location such as Millaniya, Aguruwathota, Tebuwana and Kalutara has however led to serious environmental impacts. Sand mining has shamed river banks deepened the river and increased costal erosion. Costal erosion arises because river sand replaces sand lost from the beach by reducing wave reaction.11. Because of the people near river bank are already lost there soil to kalu river and they not allow to mind sand near there lands. From there social problem will occurred and some incident went up to lost of lives.12. Sand mining by lowering the river bed facilitates intrusion of sea water. sodium chloride water intrusion up stream during the dry season long Kalu River in Kalutara district, intruding salt water enters irrigation system destroying ve hurtation. In addition, the water table can become saline and affected wells.13. In dry season people living in this are facing anther problem lowering of water level in there wells. Because of sand mining Kalu River bed lowering in dry season level of water also lower then years a go. Some places people are facing in difficulty to get water for there day today requirement.14. The biggest environment issue in Kalu River is river bank erosion. Because of sand mining activities, river bed was deepened. This will create unstable river bank. The bank collapsed in to the river. This happen most of the places in Kalu River, this cant be stopped by planting bamboo trees after flood bamboo trees also collapsed in to the river because of it roots are insufficient to take the strength.15. The damage to the National infrastructure such as road net work and bridges are prominent in Kalu River. Due to collapse of river bank total loss of national infrastructure due to sand mining has never been comprehensively assessed. An estimate of heterotaxy of endangered bridge would cost millions. In Kalu river between Tebuwana and Narthupana there are three endanger bridges. In one place contraction of damaged road was presently going on according to there persuasion this damage cost mare than 10 Million.16. Indiscriminate river sand mining in Kalu River has caused anther environmental problems deterioration of river water quality used for drinking and bathing because of mixing of sea water. Sand mining is continuing at an alarming rate as miners and other beneficiaries still appreciate the private profitability at the expense of long-termResearch done by Open University biology student Mr Chirath Bratha regarding animal and plant volume in a sand mining place and non sand mining place and other details are as follows.The research was done for atomic number 19 ml of waterSand mining placeNon sand mining placeWater290 ml 100 mlFind sand260 ml250 mlCore sand260 ml200 mlGravel190 ml180 mlOther partials270 mlSpeciesSand mining placeNon sand mining placePuntiours Nigrofaciatus (Bulath hapaya )03Puntious titteya (Le tittaya)0210Puntious Cumigii(Pottaya)0103Darra Ceylonensis (Patirana salaya)08Danio pathirama (cheep)01Oryzias Melastigma (Hada tittaya)0208Horadania Atokorali (Hora Dandiya)0107This was done by duration one hourFeather he measured Oxysigen percentages in these two places, were sand mining and not mining places.Percentage of Oxygen Places of Sand minims activities took fit(p) for 100 ml 21 mgPercentage of Oxygen places were sand not mining placed .81 mgCHAPTER 5ANALYSIS01. According to the dates from and mining places, they will mine sand on about six month per year but according to the people living in this are it was Eight to ennead months. This is an indication of sand mining owners are mining sand excessively.02. The data will be analyzed using simple descriptive statistics to get a ge neral picture to generate realistic implications.